Skin Cancer PowerPoint Show

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Skin Cancer:

Skin Cancer By Richard S. Pesaturo

What is skin cancer? :

What is skin cancer? There are 2 main types of skin cancers:

Type 1 Skin Cancer:

Type 1 Skin Cancer Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell skin cancers are by far the most common cancers of the skin. They develop from cells called keratinocytes , the most common cells in the skin.

Basal Cell Carcinoma:

Basal Cell Carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer, a disease in which the cancer cells resemble the basal cells of the epidermis.

Squamus Cell Carcinomas:

Squamus Cell Carcinomas Squamous cell carcinomas tend to be more aggressive than basal cell cancers. They are more likely to invade fatty tissues just beneath the skin, and are more likely to spread to lymph nodes and or distant parts of the body.

Keratinocytes:

Keratinocytes Keratinocytes are the most common type of skin cells. They make keratin, a protein that provides strength to skin, hair, and nails. Keratinocytes form in the deep, basal cell layer of the skin

Type 2 Skin Cancer:

Type 2 Skin Cancer Melanomas are cancers that develop from melanocytes , the cells that make the brown pigment that gives skin its color. Melanocytes can also form benign (non-cancerous) growths called moles.

Melanomas:

Melanomas Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the melanocytes (see diagram below). Because most of these cells still make melanin, melanoma tumors are often brown or black. Melanoma can almost always be cured in its early stages. It can affect your skin only, or it may spread to your organs and bones. But it is likely to spread to other parts of the body if it is not caught early. Melanoma is much less common than basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers, but it is far more dangerous.

When was skin cancer discovered?:

When was skin cancer discovered? Some mummies 2400 years old found in Peru were found to have had skin cancer. In more modern times, skin cancer was first discovered or identified by René- Théophile - Hyacinthe Laennec. This French physician was born on February 17th, 1781. He was also the first person to ever give a lecture on skin cancer. The first person who has operated on a skin cancer lesion was Scottish anatomist and surgeon John Hunter in 1787. Hunter did not know what it was, but said it appeared a "cancerous fungous excrescence" - translated to "cancerous fungus. Interestingly, this basis was so well preserved, scientists were able to examine it in 1968 and was confirmed as a melanoma.

What are risk factors for developing skin cancer? :

What are risk factors for developing skin cancer? Exposure to UV radiation A history of sunburns early in life. A history of indoor tanning. Living at a high altitude or in a sunny climate Radiation therapy Drugs that suppress the immune system Exposure to arsenic, industrial coal, and tar Infection with certain human papillomaviruses , especially in someone who is HIV-positive Smoking Long-standing skin inflammation or ulcers Scars or burns on the skin Multiple sunburns in the past A lighter natural skin color. Family history of skin cancer. A personal history of skin cancer. Skin that burns, freckles, reddens easily, or becomes painful in the sun. Blue or green eyes. Blond or red hair. Certain types and a large number of moles.

What tests and procedures are available to diagnose skin cancers?:

What tests and procedures are available to diagnose skin cancers? Skin examination: A doctor or nurse checks the skin for bumps or spots that look abnormal in color, size, shape, or texture. Biopsy: All or part of the abnormal-looking growth is cut from the skin and viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to see if cancer cells are present. There are 3 main types of skin biopsies:Shave biopsy: A sterile razor blade is used to “shave-off” the abnormal-looking growth. Punch biopsy: A special instrument called a punch or a trephine is used to remove a circle of tissue from the abnormal-looking growth.

What are the methods used to treat skin cancer? :

What are the methods used to treat skin cancer? Surgery Radiation therapy Chemotherapy Photodynamic therapy Biologic therapy

Surgery :

Surgery One or more of the following surgical procedures may be used to treat skin cancer: Mohs micrographic surgery: The tumor is cut from the skin in thin layers. During surgery, the edges of the tumor and each layer of tumor removed are viewed through a microscope to check for cancer cells. Layers continue to be removed until no more cancer cells are seen. This type of surgery removes as little normal tissue as possible and is often used to remove skin cancer on the face. Simple excision: The tumor is cut from the skin along with some of the normal skin around it. Shave excision: The abnormal area is shaved off the surface of the skin with a small blade. Electrodesiccation and curettage: The tumor is cut from the skin with a curette (a sharp, spoon-shaped tool). A needle-shaped electrode is then used to treat the area with an electric current that stops the bleeding and destroys cancer cells that remain around the edge of the wound. The process may be repeated one to three times during the surgery to remove all of the cancer. Cryosurgery: A treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue, such as carcinoma in situ. This type of treatment is also called cryotherapy . Laser surgery: A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor. Dermabrasion : Removal of the top layer of skin using a rotating wheel or small particles to rub away skin cells. Mohs surgery. A surgical procedure to remove skin cancer in several steps. First, a thin layer of cancerous tissue is removed. Then, a second thin layer of tissue is removed and viewed under a microscope to check for cancer cells. More layers are removed one at a time until the tissue viewed under a microscope shows no remaining cancer. This type of surgery is used to remove as little normal tissue as possible and is often used to remove skin cancer on the face. Cryosurgery. An instrument with a nozzle is used to spray liquid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue

Radiation Therapy :

Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.

Chemotherapy :

Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). Chemotherapy for nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis is usually topical (applied to the skin in a cream or lotion). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the condition being treated.

Photodynamic Therapy :

Photodynamic Therapy Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment that uses a drug and a certain type of laser light to kill cancer cells. A drug that is not active until it is exposed to light is injected into a vein. The drug collects more in cancer cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue.

Biologic Therapy:

Biologic Therapy Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.

Demographics and how skin cancer affects the population? :

Demographics and how skin cancer affects the population? Annual Incidence Rate Incidence & Mortality Rate Survival of Year of Diagnosis for Males Survival of Year of Diagnosis for Females

Annual Incidence Rate:

Annual Incidence Rate

Incidence & Mortality Rate:

Incidence & Mortality Rate

Survival of Year of Diagnosis for Males:

Survival of Year of Diagnosis for Males

Survival of Year of Diagnosis for Females:

Survival of Year of Diagnosis for Females

In Conclusion:

In Conclusion Skin cancer has been discovered since ancient times, it’s seemingly intrinsic in our DNA. There are two main types of cancer, although there are many forms. One of the main risk factors is exposure to ultra violet radiation. You can get exposed UV radiation by the sun, tanning beds and sun lamps. Several tests can be performed to diagnose skin cancer, but self awareness is the best. Technology has come a long way and the methods of treatment certainly have proven this fact. Richard S. Pesaturo

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