Chapter 16 : Power Point slides by Ronald J. Shope in collaboration with John W. Creswell Chapter 16 Narrative Research Designs Key Ideas : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key Ideas Narrative research and when to use it
Types of narrative designs
Key characteristics of narrative designs
Potential issues in gathering data
Steps in conducting a narrative study
Evaluating narrative research What is narrative research? : Educational Research 2e: Creswell What is narrative research? In narrative research, researchers describe the lives of individuals, collect and tell stories about people’s lives, and write narratives of individual experiences. As a distinct form of qualitative research, a narrative typically focuses on studying a single person, gathering data through the collection of stories, reporting individual experiences, and discussing the meaning of those experiences for the individual. How do you use narrative designs? : Educational Research 2e: Creswell How do you use narrative designs? When individuals are willing to tell their stories
Want to report personal experiences in a particular setting
Want a close bond with participants
When participants want to process their stories
When you have a chronology of events
When you want to write in a literary way and develop the micro picture How did narrative research develop? : Educational Research 2e: Creswell How did narrative research develop? 1990 Clandinin and Connelly first overview of narrative research in education
Trends influencing the development of narrative research
increased emphasis on teacher reflection
emphasis placed on teacher knowledge
attempt to bring teachers’ voices to the forefront Types of narrative designs: Questions to ask : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Types of narrative designs: Questions to ask Who writes or records the story?( e.g., Biography; Autobiography)
How much of a life is recorded or presented? (e.g., Life History; Personal Experience Story)
Who provides the story?
Is a theoretical lens being used? (Ideology that provides structure)
When can narrative forms be combined? (e.g., Biography and Personal Account) Key characteristics of narrative designs : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics of narrative designs Individual experiences
Chronology of the experiences
Collecting individual stories
Coding for themes
Context or setting
Collaboration with participants Key characteristics:Individual experiences : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics:Individual experiences Single individual
Interested in exploring the experiences of that individual Key characteristics: Chronology of experiences : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics: Chronology of experiences Researcher analyzes and writes about an individual life using a time sequence or chronology of events
Researcher orders these events in a way that makes sense to a reader Key characteristics Collecting individual stories : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics Collecting individual stories A story in narrative research is a first‑person oral telling or retelling of an individual
Stories have a beginning, middle, and end
Involve a predicament, conflict, or struggle; a protagonist or character; and a sequence with implied causality (a plot) during which the predicament is resolved in some fashion
Like a novel, stories have time, place, plot, and scene
Varied sources of data comprise the data base Key characteristics: Restorying : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics: Restorying Restories the individual stories
researcher gathers stories and analyzes them for elements of the story
researcher rewrites the story to place it in a chronological sequence
restorying provides a causal link among ideas
information would include interaction, continuity, and situation The Process of Restorying : Educational Research 2e: Creswell The Process of Restorying Transcription: researcher conducts the interview and transcribes the conversation from an audiotape
Retranscription: identifying the key elements of the story. Codes used by the researcher to identify setting, characters’ actions, problem and resolution in the transcript
Restorying: organizing the key codes into a sequence Key characteristics: Coding for themes : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics: Coding for themes Themes provide the complexity of the story
Themes add depth to the insight about understanding an individual’s experiences
Themes can be incorporated into the passage retelling the individual’s experience or as a separate section of the study Key characteristics: Context or setting : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics: Context or setting Describes the context or setting for the individual stories:
includes the people involved in the story
includes the physical setting
setting may be described before events or actions, or can be woven throughout the study Key characteristics: Collaboration with participants : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics: Collaboration with participants Collaboration: inquirer actively involves the participant in the inquiry as it unfolds
Involving participants in the process of research
Negotiating transitions in the research process Potential issues in narrative research : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Potential issues in narrative research Story authentic? (“Faking the data” possible)
Is the story “real?” (Participants may not be able to tell the “real story”)
Who “owns” the story? (Does the researcher have permission to share it?)
Is participant’s voice lost?
Does the researcher gain at the expense of the participant? Steps in narrative research : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Steps in narrative research Identify a phenomenon
an educational problem Purposefully select an
individual to learn
about the phenomenon Write a story about the
and social experiences Validate the accuracy of
the report Collaborate with
participant storyteller in
all phases of research Restory or retell
story Collect stories from
the individual that
Reflect personal experience Have them
Tell story Collect other
Field texts Build in past,
Present, future Build in place
or setting Describe their
story Analyze story
themes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Evaluating narrative research : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Evaluating narrative research Does the researcher focus on individual experiences?
Is there a focus on a single individual or a few individuals?
Did the researcher collect the story of an individual’s experience?
Was there a restorying by the researcher of the participant’s story? Evaluating narrative research : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Evaluating narrative research In the restorying, was the participant’s voice as well as the researcher’s voice heard?
Did the researcher identify themes that emerged from the story?
Did the story include information about place or setting of the individual? Evaluating narrative research : Educational Research 2e: Creswell Evaluating narrative research Did the story have a temporal, chronological sequence including the past, present and future?
Is there evidence that the researcher collaborated with the participant?
Does the story adequately address the purpose and questions of the researcher?