narrative research

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Chapter 16 : 

Power Point slides by Ronald J. Shope in collaboration with John W. Creswell Chapter 16 Narrative Research Designs

Key Ideas : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key Ideas Narrative research and when to use it Types of narrative designs Key characteristics of narrative designs Potential issues in gathering data Steps in conducting a narrative study Evaluating narrative research

What is narrative research? : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell What is narrative research? In narrative research, researchers describe the lives of individuals, collect and tell stories about people’s lives, and write narratives of individual experiences. As a distinct form of qualitative research, a narrative typically focuses on studying a single person, gathering data through the collection of stories, reporting individual experiences, and discussing the meaning of those experiences for the individual.

How do you use narrative designs? : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell How do you use narrative designs? When individuals are willing to tell their stories Want to report personal experiences in a particular setting Want a close bond with participants When participants want to process their stories When you have a chronology of events When you want to write in a literary way and develop the micro picture

How did narrative research develop? : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell How did narrative research develop? 1990 Clandinin and Connelly first overview of narrative research in education Trends influencing the development of narrative research increased emphasis on teacher reflection emphasis placed on teacher knowledge attempt to bring teachers’ voices to the forefront

Types of narrative designs: Questions to ask : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Types of narrative designs: Questions to ask Who writes or records the story?( e.g., Biography; Autobiography) How much of a life is recorded or presented? (e.g., Life History; Personal Experience Story) Who provides the story? Is a theoretical lens being used? (Ideology that provides structure) When can narrative forms be combined? (e.g., Biography and Personal Account)

Key characteristics of narrative designs : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics of narrative designs Individual experiences Chronology of the experiences Collecting individual stories Restorying Coding for themes Context or setting Collaboration with participants

Key characteristics:Individual experiences : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics:Individual experiences Single individual Interested in exploring the experiences of that individual

Key characteristics: Chronology of experiences : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics: Chronology of experiences Researcher analyzes and writes about an individual life using a time sequence or chronology of events Researcher orders these events in a way that makes sense to a reader

Key characteristics Collecting individual stories : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics Collecting individual stories A story in narrative research is a first‑person oral telling or retelling of an individual Stories have a beginning, middle, and end Involve a predicament, conflict, or struggle; a protagonist or character; and a sequence with implied causality (a plot) during which the predicament is resolved in some fashion Like a novel, stories have time, place, plot, and scene Varied sources of data comprise the data base

Key characteristics: Restorying : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics: Restorying Restories the individual stories researcher gathers stories and analyzes them for elements of the story researcher rewrites the story to place it in a chronological sequence restorying provides a causal link among ideas information would include interaction, continuity, and situation

The Process of Restorying : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell The Process of Restorying Transcription: researcher conducts the interview and transcribes the conversation from an audiotape Retranscription: identifying the key elements of the story. Codes used by the researcher to identify setting, characters’ actions, problem and resolution in the transcript Restorying: organizing the key codes into a sequence

Key characteristics: Coding for themes : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics: Coding for themes Themes provide the complexity of the story Themes add depth to the insight about understanding an individual’s experiences Themes can be incorporated into the passage retelling the individual’s experience or as a separate section of the study

Key characteristics: Context or setting : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics: Context or setting Describes the context or setting for the individual stories: includes the people involved in the story includes the physical setting setting may be described before events or actions, or can be woven throughout the study

Key characteristics: Collaboration with participants : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Key characteristics: Collaboration with participants Collaboration: inquirer actively involves the participant in the inquiry as it unfolds Strategies Negotiating relationships Involving participants in the process of research Negotiating transitions in the research process

Potential issues in narrative research : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Potential issues in narrative research Story authentic? (“Faking the data” possible) Is the story “real?” (Participants may not be able to tell the “real story”) Who “owns” the story? (Does the researcher have permission to share it?) Is participant’s voice lost? Does the researcher gain at the expense of the participant?

Steps in narrative research : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Steps in narrative research Identify a phenomenon that addresses an educational problem Purposefully select an individual to learn about the phenomenon Write a story about the participant’s personal and social experiences Validate the accuracy of the report Collaborate with participant storyteller in all phases of research Restory or retell The individual’s story Collect stories from the individual that Reflect personal experience Have them Tell story Collect other Field texts Build in past, Present, future Build in place or setting Describe their story Analyze story for themes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Evaluating narrative research : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Evaluating narrative research Does the researcher focus on individual experiences? Is there a focus on a single individual or a few individuals? Did the researcher collect the story of an individual’s experience? Was there a restorying by the researcher of the participant’s story?

Evaluating narrative research : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Evaluating narrative research In the restorying, was the participant’s voice as well as the researcher’s voice heard? Did the researcher identify themes that emerged from the story? Did the story include information about place or setting of the individual?

Evaluating narrative research : 

Educational Research 2e: Creswell Evaluating narrative research Did the story have a temporal, chronological sequence including the past, present and future? Is there evidence that the researcher collaborated with the participant? Does the story adequately address the purpose and questions of the researcher?