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To discover how the universe is constructed and to discover how humans live or ought to live. This gives a set of beliefs about the world and a model to answer questions Realism –be yourself Humanism –give yourself Rationalism- understand yourself Naturalism- describe yourself Pragmatism –prove yourself Idealism –imagine yourself Existentialism –choose yourself Ontology, epistemology, ideology & ethics are all sections of philosophy. Why philosophy for nursing? : Why philosophy for nursing? It articulates the thinking about what nursing is, its relationship with other disciplines and an understanding of what guides nurses behaviour in practice. What elements guide the practice of nursing :values, beliefs, assumptions. What do nurses do, For whom, When, Where, How? N= nearness to the patient, nurturing his ability to take responsibility for own health. U: understanding, unity in triad of doctor, nurse & patient R: realism, reserve reassurance S: self discipline, self assurance, supportive & security for patient E: expertise, education Definitions : Definitions ONTOLOGY: the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of things, study of the nature of things EPISTEMOLOGY: investigation into what distinguishes justified belief from opinion. Study of knowledge. Empirical, aesthetic, tactit, ethical knowledge IDEOLOGY: the ideas & manner of thinking of a particular group, social class or individual. The study of their origins and nature. Science of ideas Humanism & Existentialism : Humanism & Existentialism HUMANISM : stress the potential goodness of human beings, emphasize common human needs and seek rational means to solve human problems. Searching, experiencing, becoming. It is 1.NATURALISTIC, 2.THINKING IN TERMS OF UNITY OF MIND & BODY, 3. SOLVE PROBLEMS SCIENTIFICALLY 4. INDIVIDUALS MAKE THEIR OWN CHOICES & ARE ACCOUNTABLE, 5. ARE GUIDED BY ETHICAL & MORAL VALUES, 6. SHOULD ALL STRIVE TO ATTAIN THE ‘GOOD LIFE’. Metaphysical = divine thoughts or ideas HUMANISTIC EXISTENTIALISM: individuals make their own choices, death is part of human existence, accept personal responsibility, THE CONCEPT of holistic/ comprehensive care. The whole is greater than individual parts. Accountable for ones actions and autonomous. Individualised nursing care considering uniqueness of physio/ psych/genetics etc DEFINITIONS :pragmatism, theistic realism : DEFINITIONS :pragmatism, theistic realism PRAGMATISM: approach that accesses the truth of meaning or beliefs in terms of success of their practical application. Solutions to nursing problems can only be considered if it can be applied. Saw the rise in auxillaries, EN’s etc. PN’s become teachers/ supervisors, work being done by auxillaries etc. Task orientated. Physician directed. Groups more important than individuals. THEISTIC REALISM: Belief in existence of supreme creator but not only spiritual. God is real and knowable through the senses. There is ‘something’ behind realism or physical reality. Not a religion per se as different religions have similar ideas. Romanticism, Asceticism : Romanticism, Asceticism ROMANTICISM: emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity and primacy of the individual. A reaction against classicism. Dependence on physicians. Lack of autonomy or independence. Nurses aspiring to be junior doctors. Experience means sensory observation, otherwise its metaphysical. ASCETICISM: self discipline, abstention, religious Like monks or nuns. Spiritual is all that matters. Nursing was to enrich spirituality for client and self. Naturalism, Idealism. : Naturalism, Idealism. NATURALISM: everything arises from natural causes, not supernatural or spiritual explanations. Structures that govern and constrain human behaviour are themselves maintained by human action. Self perpetuating. Harmony of good. Use of scientific laws. Nature is source of ethics IDEALISM: objects of knowledge, experience dependent on activity of the mind. Opposite to realism/materialism. The perfect form even if it can never be attained. Objects are nothing more than a collection of data from the senses and perceived in that context. by the individual only. Utilitarianism, Rationalism : Utilitarianism, Rationalism UTILITARIANISM: good results at all costs. Emphasis on majority. Man source of ethics. Right conduct is determined by useful consequences. RATIONALISM: reason rather than experience is the foundation of knowledge. Opinions and actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than religious or emotional responses. Mission statement/ philisophical statement : Mission statement/ philisophical statement MISSION STATEMENT: a relatively permanent and broad statement of the objectives of an organization ORGANISATIONAL PHILOSOPHY: advises how its adherents should conduct themselves, values and beliefs. NURSING PHILOSOPHY: a point of view, a belief construct a speculation on the nature of things. Wholes looking at other wholes. PROFESSIONAL NURSING ATTRIBUTES : PROFESSIONAL NURSING ATTRIBUTES Must have specialised knowledge and its applications Must have specialised education Must have examinations to demonstrate competence Must have register/ roll Must have rules for entry into register Entry into register is not permanent Community must recognise specialist knowledge etc Must have an association/ watchdog/ standards setter Autonomous control Laws to cover profession & legally recognised Accountability Ethics/ rules/ regulations Protected title /insignia NURSING WORLDWIDE : NURSING WORLDWIDE Respect of the individual human rights Interdependence in the caring milieu Acceptance or rejection of a supreme being. INFLUENCED BY : INFLUENCED BY Politics & legislation The practitioners interpretation of freedom in the professional sense Ethical standards Technology COMMITMENT TO NURSING : COMMITMENT TO NURSING The nurse has a positive self image Precedence over personal needs Acceptance of the responsibility for patient needs Community influence on nurses 4 CONCEPTS IN NURSING METAPARADIGM : 4 CONCEPTS IN NURSING METAPARADIGM Nurse Client Health Environment 1.HUMAN : 1.HUMAN 2 ENVIRONMENT : 2 ENVIRONMENT 3. HEALTH : 3. HEALTH 4. NURSING : 4. NURSING You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.