Indian Government and Politics, part-I

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Study Material for B.A. Political Science 3rd semester students:

Study Material for B.A. Political Science 3 rd semester students Paper-V (Indian Government and Politics)Part 1 st Prepared by Dr. R. P. Singh Assist. Prof. ,Department of P olitical Science, GGV Bilaspur (CG) Note- This is just preliminary information on the paper. Students must consult concerned books for detail study.

Objectives::

In this section I will give fundamental ideas on the development of constitutional system under British regime How the idea of representative body in modern India have taken shape I will also discuss the fundamentals of all the important Government of India Acts 1909, 1919 and 1935 How colonial ideas and institutions still exists in modern development of Indian political system Objectives:

Unit 1 Constitutional Development in India :

The history of constitutional development in modern India can be fruitfully traced from 1773 The Regulating Act of 1773- This act was the first serious attempt made by the British parliament Pitts India Act, 1784- This act was passed to remove some of the defects of the Indian constitutional system Unit 1 Constitutional Development in India

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Charter Act of 1813- By this act trade with India was thrown open to all Britishers The charter act of 1833-The act abolished the company’s trading monopoly altogether The charter act of 1853- This act paved the way for the final surrender of authority by the East India Company The Government of India Act 1858-This act transferred all the powers from East India Company to the British Parliament Indian Councils Act 1861- By this Act Legislative decentralisation was introduced, Indian Councils Act, 1892- Enlargement of Legislative Councils

Government of India Act, 1909:

Government of India Act, 1909- This is also known as Morley- Minto Reforms. Another constitutional reforms which were having following features: The Central (Imperial) Legislative Council was expanded Provincial Legislative Councils were also expanded Communal electorates were introduced in India Functions of the Legislative Council were increased Criticism: It was criticised on the basis of Introduction of Communal Electorate , Indians believed that it was an instrument for divide and rule. Government of India Act, 1909

Government of India Act, 1919:

This act is also known as Montegue -Chelmsford Reforms This act was the result of growing demands of Indian's participation in administration and establishment of responsible government in India Bicameralism was introduced in Central Legislative Assembly that was called Council of States and Legislative Assembly Changes at provincial level are introduced Dyarchy was introduced for the first time. In this Dyarchy system the executive of a province was divided into two halves- the reserved half and transferred half. In this system there was two government at Provinces. One Government was Governor and his Executive Council for the Reserved subjects, and second Government was Governor and the Council of minsters for the transferred subjects. The size of Provincial Legislatures were increased Government of India Act, 1919

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The act also brought certain changes in the position of Secretary of state. Evaluation: The Dyarchy was an ill-conceived and ill tuned mechanism which in practice failed to click. The boycott of the 1921 Elections failed under this Act further came in the way of its working.

Government of India Act, 1935:

After discussions over the Simon Commissions Report in the Three Round Table conference (1930,1931and1932) and after settling the communal issue through the Ramsay Macdonald communal Award as amended by the Gandhi Irwin Pact, the British Government issued a white paper on the proposals for constitutional Reforms in India On the basis of these recommendations, British Parliament passed the Government of India Act, 1935 Government of India Act, 1935

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Main Features: All India Federation Dyarchy at the Central Level Provincial Autonomy- A. Provincial Executive and B. Provincial Legislature Evaluation: This Act was strongly criticised by the Indian leaders and statesman's like J L Nehru. Nehru termed this Act a ‘New Charter of Bondage’. C Y Chintamani described it as the ‘Anti India Act’

Indian Independence Act, 1947:

The final Act of the British Parliament. This Act provided freedom of India along with the partition of the country. Mr Atlee described it as ‘the fulfilment of British Mission in India’ This Act marked the end of an era of constitutional development under a foreign rule and ushered India into the era of self rules and constitutional development through self efforts. Indian Independence Act, 1947

Making of the constitution of India:

The constituent assembly and its work – Organisation and work of the constituent assembly. Demand for the constituent assembly of India: The dawn of the 20 th century came with a new hope for India, and this was the hope for Swaraj . Advocacy and acceptance of the demand for the constituent assembly: In 1922 Gandhiji asserted the Right of Self – Determination of the Indians and declared that it means undoutably India’s ability to declare her independence if she wishes. The cabinet mission proposals regarding the constituent assembly Election for the Constituent assembly. First meeting of the constituent assembly: 9 th December 1946. Boycott of the constituent assembly by the Muslim League. Status of the Constituent assembly Major Task of the constituent assembly : The making of the Indian constitution. India independence and constituent assembly : 15 th August, 1947. Making of the constitution of India

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Constitution of various committees: Drafting committee: This committee was constitute on 29 th August 1947 with Dr. B.R.Ambedkar as its Chairman. Drafting and adaptation of the constitution: Drafting committee submitted its report to the constituent assembly 21 st February 1948. On 26 th November 1949, the Constitution was finally adopted and enacted when the constitution was signed by the president of the assembly . The constitution was inaugurated on 26 th January, 1950.

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