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Premium member Presentation Transcript Principles of Adult LearningChapter 3 : 1 Principles of Adult LearningChapter 3 By Rory Prue 2009 EMS Instructor Development Slide 2: 2 “Tell me and I will forget; Show me and I will remember; Let me do and I will understand.” -- Chinese Proverb Topics : 3 Topics Pedagogy versus Andragogy Physiologic Variables Psychosocial Variables Motivation Learning Theories Slide 4: 4 “The learning styles, needs, responses, and expectations of adults differ from those of younger learners.” (Cason, 2006, p. 28) Pedagogy vs Andragogy : 5 Pedagogy vs Andragogy What is Andragogy? Autonomy & Self-Direction Problem-Centered Orientation Life Experience Goal Orientation Other Characteristics What is Andragogy? : 6 What is Andragogy? The art and science of teaching adults. Based on certain assumptions Self-direction & independence Relevancy oriented Experience Goal oriented Autonomy & Self-Direction : 7 Autonomy & Self-Direction Adults expect independence Adults like to have control Adults must learn to be self-directed Adults less tolerant of wasted time Problem-Centered Orientation : 8 Problem-Centered Orientation Adults are relevancy oriented Adults want to know why Education must be problem-centered Life Experience : 9 Life Experience Adults relate facts & concepts to experience Instructors should incorporate these experiences into class Class communication should be multidirectional Goal Orientation : 10 Goal Orientation Adults expect to apply what they learn immediately Adults want to understand how the information applies to them Adults expect a well organized class that will help them to reach their goals Other Characteristics : 11 Other Characteristics Physiologic Variables Changes Vision Hearing Energy Health Psychosocial Variables Differences in learning between adults & Children Physiological Variables : 12 Physiological Variables Lighting Adequate lighting in classrooms AV presentations should be limited Task Performance Older adults have slower reaction Older adults have less energy Comfortable Environment Limit Distractions Psychosocial Variables : 13 Psychosocial Variables Learning success Praise in public Criticize in private Respect Critical Thinking Skills Limitations & Considerations Motivation : 14 Motivation Know what motivates students Older students Younger students Know what motivates you Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators Maslow’s Hierarchy Maslow’s Hierarchy : 15 Physiological Breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion Safety Security of body, employment, resources Morality, health, & family Love/Belonging Friendship, Family, Sexual intimacy Esteem Self-Actualization Morality, creativity, spontaneity, Problem solving, lack of prejudice Maslow’s Hierarchy Self-transcendence : 16 Self-transcendence Self-transcendence Self-transcendence added later by Maslow as the top of the pyramid Barriers to Learning : 17 Barriers to Learning What are some barriers to learning? Family responsibilities Career responsibilities Lack of time Lack of money Lack of confidence Scheduling problems Learning Theories : 18 Learning Theories “Not to be confused with learning styles.” Self-Directed Learning Theory of Margins Transformational Learning Context-Based Learning Self-Directed Learning : 19 Self-Directed Learning Self-planned learning Self-teaching Self-education “It has been said that the purpose of adult education, or of any kind of education, is to make the subject a continuing, ‘inner-directed,’ self-operating, learner” (Cason, D., 2006, p. 34). Theory of Margins : 20 Theory of Margins Ability (power) of student versus how much (load) the student needs to learn Difference is the margin Load = self & social demands Power = resources, abilities, possessions, & position Instructors can affect student’s margins Instructor Generated Load : 21 Instructor Generated Load Attitude Treats learners as inferior Ignores learner’s opinions Impatient Too rigid Behavior Distracting mannerisms Difficult to understand Disorganized Avoids eye contact Instructor Generated Load (Cont.) : 22 Instructor Generated Load (Cont.) Task Inappropriate assignments Guidelines are unclear Gives Busywork Too little time to complete assignments Environment Temperature Lighting Uncomfortable chairs/desks Noise or other distractions Transformational Learning : 23 Transformational Learning “Learning that initiates and creates deep and lasting personal changes” (Cason, D., 2006, p. 36). Meaning perspectives Formed in childhood Shape world view Act as perceptual filters Meaning schemes Knowledge Values Beliefs Context-Based Learning : 24 Context-Based Learning “Assumes that information is more easily learned if it is taught within the environment where it will actually be used by the student” (Cason, D., 2006, p. 38). Context – situation in which learning occurs Social interaction a critical component Instructors must make scenarios as real as possible Slide 25: 25 “In EMS, students who have opportunities to observe and practice their skills in real life environments and to interact with field providers benefit greatly” (Cason, D., 2006, p. 38) Conclusion : 26 Conclusion How adult students learn is important to understand and plan for. Educators should know the physiologic and psychological variables common among adult learners. Understand the four major learning theories and be able to apply them in practical ways. 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