Hydrogen energy

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HYDROGEN ENERGY

Hydrogen energy :

Hydrogen energy SALIENT FEATURE OF HYDROGEN ENERGY Hydrogen has highest energy content per unit of mass of any chemical fuel and can be substituted hydrocarbon in a broad range of application. Its burning process is non polluting Heating value of 28000 kcal/kg its three times greater than hydrocarbon. Easy in production because its produced from water found in abundance Hydrogen is high flammable

Production of hydrogen:

Production of hydrogen On the basis of source use and energy source hydrogen production are following type- Electrolysis or electrolytic production- in electrolysis water spit in to H2 and O2 when electric current pass through in this process two type of electrolyzer used TANK TYPE BIPOLAR ELECTROLYZER

Thermo-chemical method:

Thermo-chemical method in thermo-chemical method water is decomposed at high temperature(500-2000*c) to produce hydrogen Chemical used in the process are reused within each cycle, creating a close loop that consume only water and produce hydrogen and oxygen Eg . zinc oxide cycle- zinc oxide powder passed through reactor temp. 1900*C 2ZnO + HEAT(1900*C) - 2Zn + O2 2Zn +H2O - 2ZnO + H2

Fossil fuel method :

Fossil fuel method This is popular method of hydrogen production about 94% hydrogen produced by this method different process- Steam reforming of gas Partial oxidation of heaviour hydro carbon Coal gasification Pyrolysis Biomass gasification

Steam Methane Reforming Process:

Steam Methane Reforming Process

Gasification process:

Gasification process

Renewable liquid fuel reforming:

Renewable liquid fuel reforming Reforming renewable liquid to hydrogen is a very similar to reforming natural gas Liquid fuel is reacted with steam at high temp. in presence of catalyst to produce hydrogen and co STEAM REFORMING REACTION C 2 H5OH + HEAT- 2CO +4H2 WATER GAS REACTION CO + H2O – CO2 + H2 + small amount of heat

Solar energy method:

Solar energy method Hydrogen production from solar energy there is two methods are considered – BIO PTOTOLYSIS – this method utilize living system to split water in to its constituents H2 and O2 blue green algae produce hydrogen through heterocysts PHOTO ELECTROLYSIS – in photo electrolysis a current is generated by exposing electrode on sun light. In this method at least one electrode is semi - conducture

Hydrogen storage:

Hydrogen storage There are five principal method of hydrogen production- Compressed gas storage Liquid storage or cryogenic storage Line pack system Under ground storage Storage as a metal hydride

Hydrogen transportation:

Hydrogen transportation Hydrogen in bulk can be transported and distributed as liquid in double walled insulated tank of liquid nitrogen with capacities of 7000 gal Hydrogen is transported in the form of metal hydrides

Status of hydrogen based tech. in india:

Status of hydrogen based tech. in india The BHU murugappa - chettair research center chenni and IIT kharagpur are leading institute. BHU develop metal hydride with storage capecites 2.4 weight% MNRE stared projects in 22 uniersites / institute In iisc Banglore research work on progress on hydroen based fuel cell Some other project in progress in private sector BHEL installed 200 kw fuel cell based power plant

Increasing research in hydrogen energy sector :

Increasing research in hydrogen energy sector

Application of hydrogen energy:

Application of hydrogen energy Residential uses Industrial uses Vehicular fuel

Advantage of hydrogen energy:

Advantage of hydrogen energy Not Explosive In Open Air Not Decomposing Not Self-Igniting Not Oxidizing Not Toxic Not Corrosive Not Polluting Not Cancer Causing

Disadvantage :

Disadvantage Currently more expensive Hydrogen is more difficult to store and distribute

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