Introduction to Operating Systems: Introduction to Operating Systems Part I: Operating Systems Overview Part II: Operating Systems in Practice (focusing on Windows and Linux) PLEASE MAKE COPIES OF LINSPIRE LIVE-CD FOR LAB PRACTICE THIS WEEK Early Computers: 2 Early Computers Charles Babbage (1791-1871) designed the first true digital computer called the analytical engine. That was purely mechanical and intended to do math operations The engine was supposed to be made of brass, and steam powered He did not actually built the machine but inspired others in the field. Early Computers: 3 Early Computers Babbage also thought of the concept of software And hired the first programmer (Lady Ada, Countess of Lovelace) for his analytical machine Current Computer Systems: 4 Current Computer Systems A computer system consists of hardware system programs application programs What is an Operating System: 5 What is an Operating System It is the software that enables us to use the hardware It is a resource manager Allocates system resources such as I/O devices, CPU etc Schedules different jobs etc History of Operating Systems: 6 History of Operating Systems First generation 1945 - 1955 vacuum tubes, plug boards Still very slow and used for scientific calculations No OS was needed Programs were entered by setting some switches History of Operating Systems: 7 History of Operating Systems Second generation 1955 – 1965 transistors, batch systems Universities started to buy computers (spending millions of dollars) Punched cards were used To run a job (a program or a set of related programs) first punch it and give the deck to the operators and wait for the output (batch operation) Computers were single user IBM STRETCH DEC PDP-1 History of Operating Systems: 8 Third generation 1965 – 1980 Integrated Circuits Engineer at the Advanced Computing Systems Division of IBM, 1968, commenting on the microchip "But what ... is it good for?" History of Operating Systems Famous Remarks: 9 Famous Remarks "I have traveled the length and breadth of this country and talked with the best people, and I can assure you that data processing is a fad that won't last out the year.“ The editor in charge of business books for Prentice Hall - 1957 History of Operating Systems: 10 History of Operating Systems Multiprogramming system three jobs in memory – 3 rd generation PowerPoint Presentation: 11 The concept of spooling was introduced by 3 rd generation operating systems and a memory partition was available, it is loaded directly to memory . Third generation OSs were still not interactive, i.e., whenever there is an error, programmers would realize it after a couple of hours. This problem lead to timesharing systems where the user has an online terminal History of Operating Systems History of Operating Systems: 12 History of Operating Systems Tanenbaum wrote a version of UNIX called MINIX with POSIX support for educational use. A Finnish student Linus Torvalds wrote a free production of MINIX called Linux History of Operating Systems: 13 History of Operating Systems Fourth generation 1980 – present Personal computers were developed after LSI (Large Scale Integration) circuits were invented. First Microcomputer: Intel 8080 CPU + attached 8-inch floppy disk First disk based OS CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers) In 1980s IBM designed the IBM PC and contacted Bill Gates for an operating System Brief History of Operating Systems Development: Understanding Operating Systems 14 Brief History of Operating Systems Development 1940 1955 1965 1980 1990 First Generation Vacuum tube, single user, early operating systems Second Generation Job scheduling, JCL, faster I/O, spooling, batch, files Third Generation Shared processing, multiprogramming, virtual memory, DBMS Recent Developments Distributed computing, personal computers, high-speed communication, multi-media Famous Remark: 15 Famous Remark “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.“ Ken Olson, president, chairman and founder of Digital Equipment Corp. - 1977 History of Operating Systems: 16 History of Operating Systems Bill Gates suggested IBM that they should look at CP/M (one of the the most successful OS for microcomputers at that time, by Gary Kildall ) The biggest mistake of all: Kindall refused to sign a non-disclosure agreement IBM went back to Bill Gates and signed a contract with him to write an OS for their new home computer MS-DOS was based on QDOS, the "Quick and Dirty Operating System" written by Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products, QDOS was based on Gary Kildall's CP/M Microsoft bought the rights to QDOS for $50,000 Famous Remark: 17 Famous Remark "I think there is a world market for maybe five computers." Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM - 1943 History of Operating Systems: 18 History of Operating Systems Early MS-DOS was very primitive but later versions included advanced features taken from UNIX The early OS for microcomputers were based on users typing in commands from the keyboard Doug Engelbart from SRI invented the Graphical User Interface (GUI) with windows, icons, menus, and mouse. History of Operating Systems: 19 History of Operating Systems Steve Jobs saw the value of GUI in a PC and developed the Apple computer with GUI (Apple Macintosh) in his garage. He is also the co - founder of Pixar which has created very successful animated films : Toy Story ; A Bug's Life; Toy Story 2; Finding Nemo ; Monsters. Yet another Famous Remarks!: 20 Yet another Famous Remarks! "640K ought to be enough for anybody." Bill Gates, 1981 History of Operating Systems: 21 History of Operating Systems Microsoft developed a GUI-based system called Windows which originally ran on top of MS-DOS (just as a GUI to DOS) Windows 95 and 98 were real GUI based operating systems still based on 16 bit Intel assembly language Windows NT is 32-bit rewrite from scratch version of Windows 98. Windows 2000 (Windows NT version 5.0), Windows Me. History of Computing http://www.computerhistory.org/: 22 History of Computing http://www.computerhistory.org/ Hewlett Packard was founded in 1939 by David Packard and Bill Hewlett, Their first product, the HP 200A Audio Oscillator Walt Disney Pictures ordered eight of the 200B model to use during the creation of the movie “Fantasia.” History of Computing http://www.computerhistory.org/: 23 History of Computing http://www.computerhistory.org/ Computer wars: Germany vs Britain Alan Turing: The bombe Overview of Operating Systems: Understanding Operating Systems 24 Overview of Operating Systems Introduction Operating System Components Machine Hardware Types of Operating Systems Brief Introduction of OS Development – focusing on Linux (because we’re already familiar with Windows Linux vs Windows The implications of of Linux in education Components of an Operating System: 25 Components of an Operating System Operating system – part of the computing system that manages all of the hardware and all of the software Controls every file, device, section of main memory & every nanosecond of processing time Memory manager Processor manager Device manager File manager Operating system consists of Subsystems Must Work With Each Other: 26 Subsystems Must Work With Each Other Tasks Performed by Each Subsystem: 27 Tasks Performed by Each Subsystem Monitor its resources continuously Enforce the policies that determine who gets what, when and how much Allocate the resource when appropriate Deallocate the resource (reclaim it) when appropriate Machine Hardware: 28 Machine Hardware Memory chips Input/output devices (monitor, keyboard, printer) Storage devices (disks, magnetic tape, card readers, drums) Central Processing Unit (Arithmetic Logic Unit, registers, internal control, bus control) Windows XP: Windows XP Windows Vista: Windows Vista Win release after XP (Oct 01 2006) Desktop only release Originally 2004, now 2006 WinFS (NTFS add-on) OUT Avalon 3D GUI layer, XML-based Based on .NET APIs WinFX Digital Rights Restrictions PowerPoint Presentation: Windows Vista MacOS X (Refer to Introduction to MAC OS downloadable from http//:zaipul.wikispaces.com): MacOS X (Refer to Introduction to MAC OS downloadable from http//:zaipul.wikispaces.com) Introduction to Linux : Introduction to Linux What we will cover: What we will cover Why Linux? What is Linux? Myths of Linux Example GUIs & app's Summary Origins of Linux: Origins of Linux Began as student Project by Linus Torvalds Opened up to the world, now backed by big business Scientific cooperation model Open source implications Better security, anyone can improve, open to all, improved competition, cheaper, faster Matured over 14 years WinXP (3-12 years), Solaris 2 (15yrs), MAC OS (26 years) Linux kernel: Linux kernel Linus Torvalds in 1991 Based on Minix kernel Linux kernel works with GNU components Allow commercial redistribution (GPLv2) GNU Project (GNU’s Not Unix): GNU Project ( G NU’s N ot U nix) Linux truly began from the inspiration of a brilliant man Richard Stallman in 1983. To develop Unix-like OS composed entirely of free software (GNU GPLv1) What is Linux ?: What is Linux ? UNIX-like operating system Comprised System utilities Libraries From GNU Project Sometimes called GNU Linux Supported by: IBM, Sun, Novell, Microsoft,… What is Linux?: What is Linux? Kernel + cmds/libs + apps + installer = a DISTRO Well-known distros: Well-known distros Slackware Debian Redhat, Fedora SuSE (drived from Slackware) Ubuntu (drived from Debian) Knoppix Linspire (drived from Debian) Distros: Distros Business Embedded Webserver Home Desktop! Why Choose Linux?: Why Choose Linux? Stability . Since Linux is based on the stable UNIX operating system, it inherits that stability and reliability. Our Linux servers have uptimes in the MONTHS. Linux is open-source , which means the source code is readily available to anyone who wants it. Since the source code available, thousands of developers all over the world are able to contribute and improve Linux. As a result, security patches and new drivers come out quickly, sometimes in less than a day. This insures a very stable operating system and high uptime for your network operations. Affordability . You can download Linux software for free from the Internet at Real Time Enterprises´ local mirror or CDs can be purchased from distribution vendors for as little as $40. Linux can run on PC-based hardware . This means it´s easy to add disk space or memory. AND, some services will run very well on a P1 with 64MB RAM, which you probably have collecting dust at your office. Speed . Many studies have proven that on equal hardware, Linux is several times faster than Windows NT. In our own experience a Linux fileserver running Samba was at least 10 times faster than a Windows NT server and the NT server had faster, better hardware! Linux uses a graphical user interface that is similar to other proprietary operating systems. (example: Microsoft XP or Mac OSX) Growth to today: Growth to today 1996 KDE desktop environment 1997 GNOME 1998 Netscape source code, Mozilla Firefox 2000 StarOffice by Sun, then OpenOffice.org And now and future: And now and future 25% server, 2.8% desktop (IDC, 2004) Expected $38 billion in 2008 Philosophy of Linux: Philosophy of Linux Free software and open source Freedom to use without restrictions Freedom to study software and its source code Freedom to modify o redistribute under certain conditions Interoperability (with other OSs) Portability (on various architectures) Community Commercialization Linux distributions (distro): Linux distributions (distro) To collect separate softwares, including: Boot loader Linux kernel GNU libraries and tools Command-line shells Graphical X Window System Desktop environment Application software packages Sweet Spot Linux Use: Sweet Spot Linux Use Supercomputer clusters Web servers Firewalls, routers, caches File servers Mail servers PDA, cell phones Embedded real time (gas pumps, Tivo etc) Linux Myths: Linux Myths Zero cost Difficult to learn Only for servers Less secure than Windows Invulnerably secure Always suitable Myths debunked: Myths debunked Without cost A few distros free, most are commercial. Support is important Difficult to learn Linspire is easy for anyone to learn & use Only for servers Linspire well-proven on laptops, desktops Less secure than Windows Linux has secure alternatives to IE, Outlook, and the registry – 3 of the buggiest virus propagators around. Still should follow good security practices Always suitable Works very well for surfing/email/Word Requirements for a Desktop Linux: Requirements for a Desktop Linux Compatible with your data Popular applications Secure Easy to use Plays all media Paid support Reasonably priced Easy to install What is Linspire?: What is Linspire? What is Linspire ? Linspire facts: Linux distro focusing exclusively on the Desktop 85-person company; HQ in San Diego, CA Offices & partner-offices worldwide (Japan, Europe, Mexico , South America, Australia) Formed 4 years ago Mission statement: “To provide the world's easiest-to-use affordable personal computing solutions.” Press Comments on Linspire: Press Comments on Linspire Worldwide Linspire “Light-ups”: Worldwide Linspire “Light-ups” Linspire: Linspire Linspire applications: Linspire applications Email Web browser Office suite DVD playing Cd burning Image editing Photos, MP3s, etc Popular Linux Apps: Popular Linux Apps Lsongs Music Manager - Rip your favorite music, organize it, play it, sync it to portable music players, and burn Lphoto Photo Manager - Download, organize, edit, save, and share your entire photo collection. Nvu Web Authoring - Create web pages and manage their web site with no technical expertise or knowledge of HTML And more! Office Suite: Office Suite You don’t need to spend more for a complete office solution. Linspire comes with an Office Suite, included. Word processing Spreadsheets Presentations Compatibility - 100% compatible with other suites including MS Office and Corel Wordperfect. Demo Microsoft PPT and .doc file. .doc .xls .ppt What is the Click N' Run Service?: What is the Click N' Run Service? CNR means “Click and Run” Online software warehouse with more than 2,000 Linux programs Easy, one-click installation Automatic updates for your software and PC The 3 Big Wins of Linspire Linux: The 3 Big Wins of Linspire Linux Desktop focus, with commercial support Click N'Run Service for easy apps install Superb customer forums http://forum.linspire.com Next steps: Next steps Live CD zero-effort experiment demo boot Try Linspire! http://tinyurl.com/9ax45 http://afu.com/ Linux vs. Windows: Linux vs. Windows Linux Windows Linux has different versions, depending on which vendor develops and runs it. Linux vendors include: Linspire , Red Hat , SuSE , Ubuntu , Mandriva , Knoppix , Slackware , Caldera , Debian Windows has different versions. It started with Win3.x, Win9x, WinME , WinNT, Win2000, WinXP . It is a proprietary software produced by Microsoft . PowerPoint Presentation: Linux Cost Windows Cost Linux is cheap or free to run. It can be downloaded from various Linux vendors. Linux may run off a server so numerous computers may have access to the program. Windows is expensive to run. The price to purchase a full version of Windows XP Professional is about USD400. Only one copy of Windows may be used on a computer. Activation with Microsoft is needed. PowerPoint Presentation: Linux Cost Windows Cost Linux is an open source software. Source codes are freely distributed to the public, of which programmers had reviewed to improve performance, eliminate bugs and strengthen security. Windows is a proprietary closed source software. Codes are not released to the public. PowerPoint Presentation: Linux OS Stability Windows OS Stability When properly configured, Linux will run until the hardware fails or if the system is shut down. Linux claims that it may continuously run up to more than a year without freezing or shutting down. It is not as prone to bugs and viruses as most are geared towards Windows. It is known to crash easily, and be infected by bugs and viruses . PowerPoint Presentation: Linux Technical Support Windows Technical Support As source codes are easily accessible, solving technical problems are effective and efficient. Linux users rely on installation guides, or Linux forums to receive advice and suggestions from other users on technical problems. Very few businesses have trained staff to solve Linux bugs. Proprietary software requires technicians to rely on Microsoft for technical information to fix bugs and problems. Numerous businesses have on site technicians that are Microsoft Certified Professionals. There is a catch. : There is a catch. Any modifications made to any programs must be released to the public. This is known as “ Copyleft ” According to Richard Stallman, software developers have the right to make changes, share codes, use and redistribute, but are not bound to give away any derived work. PowerPoint Presentation: The positive and negative implications of Linux on Education. Linux and Education Linux and Education Cost: Problem/Question Possible Solution Expensive to purchase proprietary software licenses. Linux can be obtained for free or at a low cost. Expensive to upgrade proprietary software. Software upgrades or modifications to programs are offered to the public at no cost. Edu . Inst. have a tight technology budget and are limited to the number of licenses they can purchase. As a result, not all systems in a lab will run the same kinds of programs. Linux runs on a server. Linux and Education Cost Linux and Education Hardware Requirement: Linux and Education Hardware Requirement Problem/Question Possible Solution Due to budget constraint, many schools still run on 486, Pentium I, II, III. This is evident in many inner-city schools where the communities cannot afford to upgrade technology. Expensive to upgrade hardware for proprietary software. They are slow, and incompatible with the new versions of Windows or other current software applications that require more RAM. Linux runs on networked servers and so may continue to use the 486, Pentium I, II, III. The community can also donate their old systems to their neighborhood school. Linux runs on minimal hardware requirements. Linux forums recommend that the minimal system requirements to function with decent performance is Pentium III, 128MB memory, 3Gb hard drive space, and bootable CD drive. Linux and Education Software Requirement: Linux and Education Software Requirement Problem/Question Possible Solution Expensive to purchase proprietary software licenses. Linux can be obtained for free or at a low cost. Expensive to upgrade proprietary software. Software upgrades or modifications to programs are offered to the public at no cost. Old systems without graphical interface and minimum applications will not be compatible with recent Linux versions. Edu . Inst. have a tight technology budget and are limited to the number of licenses they can purchase. As a result, not all systems in a lab will run the same kinds of programs. Linux runs on a server and computers can be networked to all run on the same programs. Linux and Education Software Applicability: Linux and Education Software Applicability Problem/Question Possible Solution Many Edu . Inst. had spent millions of dollars in purchasing software licenses. This includes Windows, Microsoft Office and Educational games. If the movement of Linux is successful, the investment of these licenses are non-refundable. There are Linux software programs similar to the function of Windows Microsoft. This includes Open Office , Star Office , KOffice . In the future, when the student needs to use Windows in the workforce, and not Linux-they would lack the knowledge and training. No Solution Very few game editors publish Linux versions of their games. Schools will have no choice other than to stay with Windows. Linux and Education Installation and Technical Support: Linux and Education Installation and Technical Support Problem/Question Possible Solution As the majority of Edu . Inst. owned computers do not run on Linux, they lack on-site trained and experienced technicians to install and provide technical support. There is already a shortage of technicians hired by the school board due to budget constraint. Design professional-development workshops to train existing and new technicians with Linux, as well as teach teachers so they may educate their students in return. It takes fewer people to manage the Linux machines than Windows machines. Linux and Education Transition Period: Linux and Education Transition Period Problem/Question Possible Solution Windows and Linux operating system do not work similarly. Users need to invest time to adapt to the change in OS. Some Windows applications may run on Linux, when an emulator is used. A common emulator is called Wine. Install Windows and Linux on the same computer, which may act as an easier transition for beginners or those who are fans of both OS.