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CRUTHERS COURSE REVIEW: LITERARY DEVICES AUTHOR’S USE TO MAKE A POINTSlide15: CLASSIFICATIONS OF LANGUAGE: DENNOTATION CONNOTATION ABSTRACT LANGUAGE CONCRETE LANGUAGE LIT/FIG. LANGUAGE ELEVATED STYLE DICTION RHETORICAL DEVICESDenotation & Connotation: Denotation and Connotation Denotation the literal meaning of a word Connotation the emotions, values, or images associated with a word Related to imagery and figures of speechABSTRACT AND CONCRETE LANGUAGE: ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE LANGUAGE ABSTRACT Conceptual things Intangible things Ideas Emotions CONCRETE Sensations Visual Auditory Olfactory Gustatory tactileFIGURATIVE AND LITERAL MEANING: FIGURATIVE AND LITERAL MEANING Literal language means exactly what it says; a rose is the physical flower. Figurative language changes the literal meaning; a rose is the color of her lips. Most common figures of speech: Simile Metaphor Personification Hyperbole Apostrophe Onomatopoeia OxymoronELEVATED LANGUAGE OR STYLE: ELEVATED LANGUAGE OR STYLE formal, dignified language often uses more elaborate figures of speech used to give dignity to a hero express the superiority of God and religious matters indicate the importance of certain events reveal a self-important or a pretentious character express humor and/or for satireDICTION: DICTION High Diction Formal language Reserved for scholarly writing, serious poetry and prose Informal Diction Informal-expository essays, newspaper editorials, works of fiction. Dialogue in non poetic forms of literature Colloquial Diction and Slang Informal speech used to create a mood or capture a dialect Poetic Diction Words 'used in poetry but not in prose.' This kind of poetic diction refers only to pre-twentieth-century poetryRHETORICAL DEVICES: RHETORICAL DEVICES Technique that an author or speaker uses to evoke an emotional response in his audience These emotional responses are central to the meaning of the work or speech, and should also get the audience's attention.Common Rhetorical Devices: Common Rhetorical Devices Analogy Antithesis Aposiopesis Diction Connotation Epithet Imagery Metaphor Parallelism Personification Rhetorical Question Simile Synecdoche Symbolism syntaxExample of Rhetorical Devices & Figurative Language: Example of Rhetorical Devices and Figurative Language Shakespeare’s, King Lear 'Rhetoric is the art of persuasion' 'Figurative language moves us to adoration' Alexander Dumas’ The Count of Monte Cristo Eye-Opening Journey from Innocence to ExperienceFigurative Language From The Lord of the Flies: Figurative Language From The Lord of the Flies Personification Dead pig and Simon conversation Simile 'there was a strip of wee-strewn beach that was almost as firm as a road' Metaphor The choir boy is described as a '…dark creature crawling…' Allusion Title, Simon’s NameSlide26: TYPES OF IRONY EXAMPLES OF IRONY ELEMENTS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO IRONYIRONY: IRONY Technique of Detachment Neither cruel nor kind It’s a device Draws attention to the discrepancy of two things Words and their meanings Expectation and Fulfillment What is and what seems to be Used to take readers beyond literal meanings.Types of Irony: Types of Irony Verbal (specifically related to language) Opposite of what is meant is said Situational One understanding of a situation sharply contrast another Dramatic Reader knows more than the character does about his or her situationExamples of Irony: Examples of Irony Jane Austin’s Pride and Prejudice Irony Reveals Character What is ironic, type of irony and to what effect Irony and Lady Catherine What is ironic, type of Irony, use of Irony subjects, victims, generalizations Alexander Dumas’ The Count of Monte Cristo Ironic Twists What appears to be, what is reality, and type of irony Sophocles’ Oedipus the King Understanding Irony Reasons for using ironyElements that contribute to irony: Elements that contribute to irony Contradictions and Paradoxes Satire *used to bring about reform Sarcasm *direct remark made to offend Paralipsis and antiphrasis (synonyms) Figures of speech *it is important to note that satire and sarcasm, while they are related to irony, are not only irony related terms.Examples of elements that contribute to irony: Examples of elements that contribute to irony Sophocles’ Oedipus the King, Paradox of the BlindSlide27: Types of Comedy Expressions of Comedy Techniques of Verbal Comedy Elements of Comedy Satire and Satirical Devices Structure of ComedyTYPES OF COMEDY: TYPES OF COMEDY Comedy of Ideas (high comedy) Characters argue about important topics Wit and clever language to mock Comedy of Manner (high comedy) Plot: Intrigues of upper class Dialogue: witty language/put downs Society: exclusive cliques Farce (high/low combo) Coincidences, mistiming, mistaken identities Characters: puppets of fate Low Comedy Dirty jokes and gestures Exaggeration and understatement Highly Physical MOLIEREExpressions of Comedy: Actions and Words: Expressions of Comedy: Actions and Words ACTIONS: The Jack in the Box The Puppet The Snowball WORDS: Repetition Inversion Serial InterferenceTechniques of Verbal Comedy: Techniques of Verbal Comedy Inversion Correspondence Transposition of Tone Parody degradation Size Transposition Exaggeration understatement Value Transposition Transposition of Reality and the Ideal Irony humor Using a professional vocabulary outside of the field with which it is generally associated.Elements of Comedy: Elements of Comedy Comic Problem Romantic Satiric Comic Climax Peak of confusion, decision and solution must be made Comic Catastrophe Resolution Relationships Comic Education and Change Learning experience Education: characters and audience Comic Characters Not deep stock Comic Language Highly important elements of comedy Elegant and witty Puns and bawdy humor mastery Comic Relief Alleviates tension during conflict (tragedy)Satire and Satirical Devices Sarcasm, sardonicism, irony or wit used to ridicule or mock: Satire and Satirical Devices Sarcasm, sardonicism, irony or wit used to ridicule or mock 1) Satirical Styles Direct Indirect Types of Satire Horatian Juvenalian Satirical Devices Irony Travesty Burlesque Parody Farce Invective Sarcasm Knaves and fools MalapropismSatirical Styles and Types of Satire: Satirical Styles and Types of Satire Satirical Styles: Direct Satire is directly stated Indirect Communicated through characters in a situation Types of Satire: Horatian Light-hearted, intended for fun Juvenalian Bitter, angry, attackingSatirical Devices: Satirical Devices Irony Verbal (inversion of meaning) Dramatic (knowledge) Socratic (feigning ignorance) Situational (discrepancy between purpose and results) Travesty Serious subject portrayed frivolously Burlesque Ridiculous exaggeration Parody Imitation Invective Direct verbal assault on someone or something (satire) Farce Exciting laughter through exaggerated, improbably situations Invective Harsh, abusive language directed against someone Sarcasm Sharply mocking or contemptuous remark Knaves and Fools Exploitation of fool by knave Malapropism Deliberate mispronunciation of a name or term to poke fun atSatirical Styles and Types of Satire: STRUCTURE OLD GREEK COMEDY GREWEK MIDDLE COMEDY GREEK NEW COMEDY ROMAN COMEDY RENAISSANCE COMEDIES-BRITTISH Restoration and 1700’s: COMEDY OF MANNERS COMEDIA DELL’ARTE SENTIMENTAL COMEDY 19TH CENTURY 20TH CENTURY PROBLEM PLAYS TRAGIC COMEDYSatirical Devices: Shakespeare’s use of comic relief/irony in King Lear and Hamlet In Act I Scene 1, even relatively wise judges of character, Kent and Gloucester, make dangerous errors and are called both noble Edmund called 'proper' Language is like a game of puns, nonsense and intentional misunderstandings Opening scene of Act V of Hamlet, in which a gravedigger banters with Hamlet.STRUCTURE: Jane Austin’s Pride and Prejudice Humor Through Structure What made the novel humorous Characters Lady Catherine, Collins, and Mrs. Bennet Exaggeration Austin’s exaggeration of the behavior of her characters Irony Review Pride and Prejudice Handout 27 Dialogue Politically correctness of conversation and what you know the speaker really wants to say The way Collins continuously brags about himself, yet says he is not bragging. Mrs. Bennet’s silly banteringShakespeare’s use of comic relief/irony in King Lear & Hamlet: Moliere’s Use of Farce in Tartuffe Farce as Foundation for Moliere’s Comedy Physical Description of Tartuffe 'humility'Jane Austin’s Pride and PrejudiceHumor Through Structure: Direct and Indirect Presentation 3 Principles of Good Characterization Character Types Relation of Characters Introduction of New Characters The various means by which Characters are presentedMoliere’s Use of Farce in Tartuffe: Direct and Indirect Characterization Authors present their characters either directly or indirectly Direct Presentation- tell us straight out, by exposition, or analysis Indirect Presentation (AKA: Dramatization) shows us the characters through their actionsSlide38: 3 Principles of Good Characterization Characters are consistent in their behavior Character’s actions spring from motivations the reader can understand and believe Characters must be plausible or lifelikeDirect & IndirectCharacterization: Character Types Flat 1 to 2 predominate traits Summed up in a sentence or two Stock Character- special kind of flat character Stereotyped figure Recurring often in fiction Round Complex Many-sided Three-dimensional quality of real people Static Remains same from beginning to end Developing Undergoes change of character, personality or outlook May have an Epiphany3 Principles of Good Characterization: How Characters Relate to Other Characters Character Traits Are they generous, angry, resourceful, shy, loving, resentful, etc. Social class and economic standing Belief systems and motivations How do they relate to each other? After you have figured out the above then analyze how those traits effect how the characters interact with each other. SOPHOCLESCharacter Types: Introduction of New Characters Often times, the introduction of new characters effects the situation in fiction. Ask yourselves questions about how the new character changes the situation or plot. What does that character stand for? Tool for a resolution Conflict agentHow Characters Relate to Other Characters: EXAMPLES OF CHARACTERIZATION Pride and Prejudice Indirect and Direct Characterization Oedipus the King Characters before a conflict and after a conflict (Unaware to Enlightenment) Archetypal Hero Minor Character The shepherdIntroduction of New Characters: Something that means more than what it suggests on the surface Object, person, situation, action Types of symbolism Name symbolism Symbolic use of objects and actions Reinforces and adds to meaning Carries meaningEXAMPLES OF CHARACTERIZATION: How to Recognize Symbol Story must give a clue that something is a symbol Emphasis, repetition, position Meaning of symbol must be established and supported by the entire context of the story Item must suggest a meaning different in kind from its literal meaning May have more than one meaning Many faceted jewel Not to say it can mean anything you wantSlide10: SYMBOLISM IN THE LORD OF THE FLIES Piggy and his glasses Ralph and the Conch Simon, Roger, Jack The Island The 'Scar' The Beast Lord of the Flies (title) FireEXAMPLES OF CHARACTERIZATION: The central idea or unifying generalization implied or stated by a literary work. Finding Theme: Find out what the story’s central purpose is What view of life does it support? What insight into life does it reveal? Good writers don’t merely state the theme, but dramatize it.Slide10: The Critical Term ‘Theme’ When analyzing theme do not use words such as ‘moral’, ‘lesson’, and ‘message’. Why? Story is not a sermon It’s first objective is entertainment Looking at it as a moral, lesson, or message keeps us from enjoying the art of literature Instead you are trying to wring out some didactic pronouncement about life Don’t ask: What does the story teach? Ask: What does the story reveal?How to Recognize Symbol: Principles in Discovering and Writing About Theme Ask: In what way has the main character changed over the course of the story? Explore the nature of the conflict and its outcome Consider the title of the pieceSYMBOLISM IN THE LORD OF THE FLIES: 6 Principles For Writing About Theme Should be expressible in the form of a statement with a subject and a predicate. Should be a generalization about life. Generalization must not be larger than is justified by the terms of the story. The central and unifying concept of a story It accounts for all the major details in the story It is not contradicted by any detail of the story Cannot rely upon supposed facts There is no one way of stating the theme. Avoid any statement that reduces the theme to some familiar saying.Slide43: Example of Theme The Count of Monte Cristo Using facts and statements from the text to decipher theme. What is the theme of each novel we have read? Use the thesis handout to help you construct a complete theme. When you write about the theme of a book you are basically coming up with an original thesis stating what you believe it is about. Theme is to a story as a thesis statement is to an essay. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.