COURSE REVIEW: LITERARY DEVICES AUTHOR’S USE TO MAKE A POINT: AP LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION
MRS. CRUTHERS COURSE REVIEW: LITERARY DEVICES AUTHOR’S USE TO MAKE A POINT Slide15: CLASSIFICATIONS OF LANGUAGE:
RHETORICAL DEVICES Denotation & Connotation: Denotation and Connotation Denotation
the literal meaning of a word
the emotions, values, or images associated with a word
Related to imagery and figures of speech ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE LANGUAGE: ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE LANGUAGE ABSTRACT
tactile FIGURATIVE AND LITERAL MEANING: FIGURATIVE AND LITERAL MEANING Literal language means exactly what it says; a rose is the physical flower.
Figurative language changes the literal meaning; a rose is the color of her lips.
Most common figures of speech:
Oxymoron ELEVATED LANGUAGE OR STYLE: ELEVATED LANGUAGE OR STYLE formal, dignified language
often uses more elaborate figures of speech
give dignity to a hero
express the superiority of God and religious matters
indicate the importance of certain events
reveal a self-important or a pretentious character
express humor and/or for satire DICTION: DICTION High Diction
Reserved for scholarly writing, serious poetry and prose
Informal-expository essays, newspaper editorials, works of fiction.
Dialogue in non poetic forms of literature
Colloquial Diction and Slang
Informal speech used to create a mood or capture a dialect
Words 'used in poetry but not in prose.'
This kind of poetic diction refers only to pre-twentieth-century poetry RHETORICAL DEVICES: RHETORICAL DEVICES Technique that an author or speaker uses to evoke an emotional response in his audience
These emotional responses are central to the meaning of the work or speech, and should also get the audience's attention. Common Rhetorical Devices: Common Rhetorical Devices Analogy
syntax Example of Rhetorical Devices & Figurative Language: Example of Rhetorical Devices and Figurative Language Shakespeare’s, King Lear
'Rhetoric is the art of persuasion'
'Figurative language moves us to adoration'
Alexander Dumas’ The Count of Monte Cristo
Eye-Opening Journey from Innocence to Experience Figurative Language From The Lord of the Flies: Figurative Language From The Lord of the Flies Personification
Dead pig and Simon conversation
'there was a strip of wee-strewn beach that was almost as firm as a road'
The choir boy is described as a '…dark creature crawling…'
Title, Simon’s Name Slide26: TYPES OF IRONY
EXAMPLES OF IRONY
ELEMENTS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO IRONY IRONY: IRONY
Technique of Detachment
Neither cruel nor kind
It’s a device
Draws attention to the discrepancy of two things
Words and their meanings
Expectation and Fulfillment
What is and what seems to be Used to take readers beyond literal meanings. Types of Irony: Types of Irony Verbal (specifically related to language)
Opposite of what is meant is said
One understanding of a situation sharply contrast another
Reader knows more than the character does about his or her situation Examples of Irony: Examples of Irony Jane Austin’s Pride and Prejudice
Irony Reveals Character
What is ironic, type of irony and to what effect
Irony and Lady Catherine
What is ironic, type of Irony, use of Irony
subjects, victims, generalizations
Alexander Dumas’ The Count of Monte Cristo
What appears to be, what is reality, and type of irony
Sophocles’ Oedipus the King
Reasons for using irony Elements that contribute to irony: Elements that contribute to irony Contradictions and Paradoxes
Satire *used to bring about reform
Sarcasm *direct remark made to offend
Paralipsis and antiphrasis (synonyms)
Figures of speech
*it is important to note that satire and sarcasm, while they are related to irony, are not only irony related terms. Examples of elements that contribute to irony: Examples of elements that contribute to irony Sophocles’ Oedipus the King,
Paradox of the Blind Slide27: Types of Comedy
Expressions of Comedy
Techniques of Verbal Comedy
Elements of Comedy
Satire and Satirical Devices
Structure of Comedy TYPES OF COMEDY: TYPES OF COMEDY Comedy of Ideas (high comedy)
Characters argue about important topics
Wit and clever language to mock
Comedy of Manner (high comedy)
Plot: Intrigues of upper class
Dialogue: witty language/put downs
Society: exclusive cliques
Farce (high/low combo)
Coincidences, mistiming, mistaken identities
Characters: puppets of fate
Dirty jokes and gestures
Exaggeration and understatement
MOLIERE Expressions of Comedy: Actions and Words: Expressions of Comedy: Actions and Words ACTIONS:
The Jack in the Box
Serial Interference Techniques of Verbal Comedy: Techniques of Verbal Comedy Inversion
Transposition of Tone
Value Transposition Transposition of Reality and the Ideal
Using a professional vocabulary outside of the field with which it is generally associated. Elements of Comedy: Elements of Comedy Comic Problem
Peak of confusion, decision and solution must be made
Comic Education and Change
Education: characters and audience Comic Characters
Highly important elements of comedy
Elegant and witty
Puns and bawdy humor
Alleviates tension during conflict (tragedy) Satire and Satirical Devices Sarcasm, sardonicism, irony or wit used to ridicule or mock: Satire and Satirical Devices Sarcasm, sardonicism, irony or wit used to ridicule or mock 1) Satirical Styles
Types of Satire
Juvenalian Satirical Devices
Knaves and fools
Malapropism Satirical Styles and Types of Satire: Satirical Styles and Types of Satire Satirical Styles:
Satire is directly stated
Communicated through characters in a situation
Types of Satire:
Light-hearted, intended for fun
Bitter, angry, attacking Satirical Devices: Satirical Devices Irony
Verbal (inversion of meaning)
Socratic (feigning ignorance)
Situational (discrepancy between purpose and results)
Serious subject portrayed frivolously
Direct verbal assault on someone or something (satire)
Exciting laughter through exaggerated, improbably situations
Harsh, abusive language directed against someone
Sharply mocking or contemptuous remark
Knaves and Fools
Exploitation of fool by knave
Deliberate mispronunciation of a name or term to poke fun at Satirical Styles and Types of Satire: STRUCTURE OLD GREEK COMEDY
GREWEK MIDDLE COMEDY
GREEK NEW COMEDY
Restoration and 1700’s:
COMEDY OF MANNERS
TRAGIC COMEDY Satirical Devices: Shakespeare’s use of comic relief/irony in King Lear and Hamlet In Act I Scene 1, even relatively wise judges of character, Kent and Gloucester, make dangerous errors and are called both noble
Edmund called 'proper'
Language is like a game of puns, nonsense and intentional misunderstandings
Opening scene of Act V of Hamlet, in which a gravedigger banters with Hamlet. STRUCTURE: Jane Austin’s Pride and Prejudice Humor Through Structure What made the novel humorous
Lady Catherine, Collins, and Mrs. Bennet
Austin’s exaggeration of the behavior of her characters
Review Pride and Prejudice Handout 27
Politically correctness of conversation and what you know the speaker really wants to say
The way Collins continuously brags about himself, yet says he is not bragging.
Mrs. Bennet’s silly bantering Shakespeare’s use of comic relief/irony in King Lear & Hamlet: Moliere’s Use of Farce in Tartuffe Farce as Foundation for Moliere’s Comedy
Physical Description of Tartuffe
'humility' Jane Austin’s Pride and PrejudiceHumor Through Structure: Direct and Indirect Presentation
3 Principles of Good Characterization
Relation of Characters
Introduction of New Characters The various means by which
Characters are presented Moliere’s Use of Farce in Tartuffe: Direct and Indirect Characterization Authors present their characters either directly or indirectly
tell us straight out, by exposition, or analysis
Indirect Presentation (AKA: Dramatization)
shows us the characters through their actions Slide38: 3 Principles of Good Characterization Characters are consistent in their behavior
Character’s actions spring from motivations the reader can understand and believe
Characters must be plausible or lifelike Direct & IndirectCharacterization: Character Types Flat
1 to 2 predominate traits
Summed up in a sentence or two
Stock Character- special kind of flat character
Recurring often in fiction
Three-dimensional quality of real people
Remains same from beginning to end
Undergoes change of character, personality or outlook
May have an Epiphany 3 Principles of Good Characterization: How Characters Relate to Other Characters Character Traits
Are they generous, angry, resourceful, shy, loving, resentful, etc.
Social class and economic standing
Belief systems and motivations
How do they relate to each other?
After you have figured out the above then analyze how those traits effect how the characters interact with each other. SOPHOCLES Character Types: Introduction of New Characters Often times, the introduction of new characters effects the situation in fiction.
Ask yourselves questions about how the new character changes the situation or plot.
What does that character stand for?
Tool for a resolution
Conflict agent How Characters Relate to Other Characters: EXAMPLES OF CHARACTERIZATION Pride and Prejudice
Indirect and Direct Characterization
Oedipus the King
Characters before a conflict and after a conflict (Unaware to Enlightenment)
The shepherd Introduction of New Characters: Something that means more than what it suggests on the surface
Object, person, situation, action
Types of symbolism
Symbolic use of objects and actions
Reinforces and adds to meaning
Carries meaning EXAMPLES OF CHARACTERIZATION: How to Recognize Symbol
Story must give a clue that something is a symbol
Emphasis, repetition, position
Meaning of symbol must be established and supported by the entire context of the story
Item must suggest a meaning different in kind from its literal meaning
May have more than one meaning
Many faceted jewel
Not to say it can mean anything you want Slide10: SYMBOLISM IN THE LORD OF THE FLIES Piggy and his glasses
Ralph and the Conch
Simon, Roger, Jack
Lord of the Flies (title)
Fire EXAMPLES OF CHARACTERIZATION: The central idea or unifying generalization implied or stated by a literary work.
Find out what the story’s central purpose is
What view of life does it support?
What insight into life does it reveal?
Good writers don’t merely state the theme, but dramatize it. Slide10: The Critical Term ‘Theme’ When analyzing theme do not use words such as ‘moral’, ‘lesson’, and ‘message’.
Story is not a sermon
It’s first objective is entertainment
Looking at it as a moral, lesson, or message keeps us from enjoying the art of literature
Instead you are trying to wring out some didactic pronouncement about life
Don’t ask: What does the story teach?
Ask: What does the story reveal? How to Recognize Symbol: Principles in Discovering and Writing About Theme Ask: In what way has the main character changed over the course of the story?
Explore the nature of the conflict and its outcome
Consider the title of the piece SYMBOLISM IN THE LORD OF THE FLIES: 6 Principles For Writing About Theme Should be expressible in the form of a statement with a subject and a predicate.
Should be a generalization about life.
Generalization must not be larger than is justified by the terms of the story.
The central and unifying concept of a story
It accounts for all the major details in the story
It is not contradicted by any detail of the story
Cannot rely upon supposed facts
There is no one way of stating the theme.
Avoid any statement that reduces the theme to some familiar saying. Slide43: Example of Theme The Count of Monte Cristo
Using facts and statements from the text to decipher theme.
What is the theme of each novel we have read?
Use the thesis handout to help you construct a complete theme.
When you write about the theme of a book you are basically coming up with an original thesis stating what you believe it is about. Theme is to a story as a thesis statement is to an essay.