Grounded Theory-Rohini Shinde

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Application of Grounded Theory in Health Sector. : 

Application of Grounded Theory in Health Sector. Presented by : ROHINI SHNDE

Articles reviewed… : 

Articles reviewed… Spirituality in African Americans with Diabetes: Self Management through a Relationship with God, Rebecca L. Polzer, university of Texas Health science Centre at Houston, Margaret S Miles. Univ. of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Daughters caring for Dying Parents: A process of Relinguishing, Trudy Read, weatern Health, Judith Wuest, univ. of New Brunswick. The preservation of Order: the use of common approach among staff toward clients in long term Psychiatric care, Per Enarsson, Dept of care, Katrineholm Municioality and Umed univ. Sweden, Per-olof Sandman. Relationship and their potential for Change Developed in difficult Type 1 diabetes, Vibeke Zoffmann, the Univ. Hospitals’ Centre for nursing and crae Research, Copenhagen, Denmark, Marit Kirkevold, Univ. of aarhus, Univ. of Oslo, Norway Safeguarding precarious Survival: parenting Children who have life threatening Heart disease, Gwen R Rempel, margaret J harrison, Univ. of Alberta, edmonton. First Nations People’s challenge in managing Coronary Artery Disease Risk., kathryn M King, Julianne Sanguins Young women with Type 1 Diabetes’ Managemnet of turning points and transitions. , Bodil rasmussen, beverly o’Connell, patricia Dunning, Deakin Univ. Burwood, Victoria, Australia.

Continued… : 

Continued… A theory of Nonphysical suffering and trust in Hospice patients., Jodi l sacks, Jenenne P Nelson. Univ. of Colorado at Colorado Springs. The process and the meaning of Hope for the family Members of Traumatic Coma patients in Intensive care, Sofie T.L. verhaeghe, Florence J van Zuuren. Negotiating Sexual Agency: Postmenopausal Women’s Meaning and Experience of Sexual Desire., Jill M wood, Phyllis Kernoff Mansfield, Patricia Barthalow Koch, Penn State Univ, Univ Park. Having cancer changed my Life and changed my life forever;, Survival, illness lrgacy and service provision following cancer in childhood, Sarah Drew, Chronic illness The biographical impact of Teenage and adolescent cancer, Anne Grinyer. Chronic Illness. Children experiences of hospitalisation: Imelda Coyne, Journal of Child care.

Components of Health Sector : 

Components of Health Sector Equity in Health care. Quality of Health care. Primary Health Care. Public Health. Mental Health. Nutrition. Women and Child Health. Population. Health promotion and advocacy. Human Resource Development for Health. Health systems management, health financing… Health Care providers…. Health Research.

Aims of this paper are: : 

Aims of this paper are: To identify the main characteristics of Grounded Theory. To understand the conceptualization of the research concerns in the research based literature. To critically evaluate the Methodology of Grounded Theory used in research based literature. To identify the points where Grounded Theory converges and diverges from Qualitative Research Methodology.

What is Grounded Theory ? : 

What is Grounded Theory ? Origin of Grounded Theory. It was developed by two Sociologists, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss. In the research on dying patients, they developed the constant Comparative method, which later known as ‘Grounded Theory’. Meaning of Grounded Theory. Grounded Theory is a systematic Qualitative Research Methodology in the Social Sciences, which in the process of conducting research, Emphasizes on Generation of Theory from Data. Grounded Theory is a method for the collection and analysis of qualitative data, concerned with generation, elaboration, and validation of social science theory.

Continued… : 

Continued… Common features of Grounded Theory : G.T does not aim TRUTH, but conceptualize what is going on by using Empirical data. No hypotheses formulation in advance, they are formed during analysis, based on conceptual ideas. It is about mainly ‘ participants’ Concern, and how they deal with it… In G.T, the unit of analysis are incidents. Results of G.T, are in form of probability statements about the relationships between concepts or integrated set of conceptual hypotheses developed from Empirical data. Validity of GT is measured in. FIT, RELEVANCE, WORKABILITY, and MODIFIABILITY.

Continued.. : 

Continued.. Phases /Steps in Grounded Theory. Data Collection Data analyses : Coding, constant comparison between data to data, emergence of a core category.. Theoretical Sampling Memoing Sorting Writing up. Split in Methods of G.T

Conceptualization of the research concerns used in researched based literature: : 

Conceptualization of the research concerns used in researched based literature: Conceptualization based on literature reviewed and gaps founds….the founded gaps were thus fulfilled by undertaking the research studies ……. The stress in conceptualization prior to research, was mostly on what, how and why ..about the Research concern. For examples: Cultural affiliations and gender influences the process of people managing their illness. People with chronic illness and how they manage their illnesses during the turning points in their life. Biological cycle of women affects their health and sexuality… Non-physical suffering and help needed by patients for that. What family members of traumatic coma patients experience ….

Critical Evaluation of Methodology of G.T used in Research based literature : 

Critical Evaluation of Methodology of G.T used in Research based literature Sampling Theoretical sampling. Purposive and Theoretical sampling. Purposive sampling. (participants are sought based on their characteristics and potential to aid in Theory Development. Data Collection Most popular method of data collection in G.T seems to be Interviews…In-depth, semi structured interviews. The activity of data collection was carried out till the point of SATURATION. Technology used in Data collection…audio tape recorder, video recorder, Telephone etc…

Continued… : 

Continued… Data analyses: Constant Comparative method was used. Coding : Open coding and axial coding. Delimiting coding of that category or concepts which is/are related with CORE category. Writing of Memos. Analyses by different Researchers, sometimes from different background. Use of Non-numerical data analyses program NVivo 2.0.

Points where Grounded Theory converges with QRM: : 

Points where Grounded Theory converges with QRM: Grounded Theory Origin : In 1967… Its based on induction. Gap between the researcher and researched is minimized. It is an iterative process. Responsive to field situations. The theory developed is contexts specifics. QRM Identification : 1967 It’s an Inductive process. Gap between the researcher and researched is reduced. It is iterative in nature. Responsive to field situations. The theory developed is context specifics.

Continued…. : 

Continued…. Theoretical sampling Data Collection methods… Data Analyses …. Emerging concepts, sub-concepts, linkages in-between them, generation of hypotheses, development of a Theory…..using constant comparative method.

Points where Grounded Theory Diverges with QRM: : 

Points where Grounded Theory Diverges with QRM: Grounded theory Focus is on developing a core category, in a concerned area. Mostly Grounded theory is used when a problem is to be studied and how people deal with it, sometimes with also purpose to provide a solution.…this implies it is an action based studies. In data analyses the Techniques used differ. In G.T, categories are identified through the process of coding, memoing… QRM The aim here is not to develop a Theory, sometimes it is to understand a phenomena, process, behaviors, beliefs, practices etc of people. For example…Ethnography, phenomenology…etc, . It however contributes to Theory development. In QRM, in the process of Data analyses, various matrices are used to facilitate the emergence of concepts and their relationships.

Thank You….. : 

Thank You…..