DBAII_R1_1_Les11_E

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RMAN Backups : 

RMAN Backups

Objectives : 

Objectives After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Identify types of RMAN specific backups Use the RMAN BACKUP command to create backup sets Back up the control file Back up the the archived redo log files Use the RMAN COPY command to create image copies

RMAN Backup Concepts : 

RMAN Backup Concepts Recovery Manager backup is a server-managed backup Recovery Manager uses Oracle server sessions for backup operations Can back up entire database, all datafiles in a tablespace, selected datafiles, control files, archived redo log files Closed database backup Target database must be mounted (not open) Includes datafiles, control files, archived redo log files Open database backup Tablespaces should not be put in backup mode Includes datafiles, control files, archived redo log files

Recovery Manager Backups : 

ArchivedLog file Recovery Manager Backups Copy of datafile 3 Copy of archived log Image copy Backup set Backup set 1 Backup set 2 Backup set 3 Datafile 2 ArchivedLog file Copy of control file

Backup Sets : 

Backup Sets Backup set 1 Backup set 2 Backup set 3

Characteristics of Backup Sets : 

Characteristics of Backup Sets The BACKUP command creates backup sets. Backup sets usually contain more than one file. Backup sets can be written to a disk or tape. A restore operation is required to extract files from a backup set. Datafile backup sets can be incremental or full. Backup sets do not include never-used blocks.

Backup Piece : 

Backup Piece A backup piece is a file in a backup set. A backup piece can contain blocks from more than one datafile. Backup set 1 (Logical) Piece 2 (file) Piece 1 (file) Datafile 4 Piece 1 (file) Backup set 2 (Logical) Set 1 Serverprocess(channel) MML Serverprocess(channel) MML Piece 1 Piece 2

Backup Piece Size : 

Backup Piece Size Backup piece size can be limited as follows: RMAN> RUN { 2> ALLOCATE CHANNEL t1 TYPE 'SBT' 3> MAXPIECESIZE = 4G; 4> BACKUP 5> FORMAT 'df_%t_%s_%p' FILESPERSET 3 6> (tablespace users); }

The BACKUP Command : 

The BACKUP Command RMAN> BACKUP 2> FORMAT '/BACKUP/df_%d_%s_%p.bus' 3> DATABASE filesperset = 2;

Creating a Backup Set : 

Creating a Backup Set

Multiplexed Backup Sets : 

Serverprocess(channel) MML Multiplexed Backup Sets Multiplex two or more datafiles into a backup set for tape streaming. Backup set Tape filesperset = 3

Parallelization of Backup Sets : 

Parallelization of Backup Sets Allocate multiple channels, optionally specify filesperset, and include many files. Serverprocess(channel) MML Serverprocess(channel) MML Serverprocess(channel) MML Backup Set 1 Backup Set 2 Backup Set 3 Set 1 Set 2 Set 3

Duplexed Backup Sets : 

Backup set Duplexed Backup Sets Datafile 2 BACKUP1 BACKUP2

Backups of Backup Sets : 

Backups of Backup Sets Backup set Backup set

Archived Redo Log File Backups : 

Archived Redo Log File Backups Online redo log file switch is automatic. Archived log failover is performed.

Archived Redo Log Backup Sets : 

Archived Redo Log Backup Sets Include only archived redo log files Are always full backups RMAN> BACKUP 2> FORMAT '/disk1/backup/ar_%t_%s_%p' 3> ARCHIVELOG ALL DELETE ALL INPUT;

Backup Constraints : 

Backup Constraints The database must be mounted or open. Online redo log backups are not supported. Only “clean” backups are usable in NOARCHIVELOG mode. Only “current” datafile backups are usable in ARCHIVELOG mode.

Image Copies : 

Image Copies ArchivedLog file Copy of datafile 3 Copy of archived log ArchivedLog file

Characteristics of an Image Copy : 

Characteristics of an Image Copy Can be written only to a disk Can be used for recovery immediately; does not need to be restored Is a physical copy of a single datafile, archived log, or control file Is most like an operating system backup (contains all blocks) Can be part of an incremental strategy

Creating an Image Copy : 

Creating an Image Copy

Image Copy Example : 

Image Copy Example RMAN> COPY 2> DATAFILE '/ORADATA/users_01_db01.dbf' TO 3> '/BACKUP/users01.dbf' tag=DF3, 4> ARCHIVELOG 'arch_1060.arc' TO 5> 'arch_1060.bak'; Archivedlog file Archivedlog file Copy of datafile 3 Copy of archived log

The COPY Command : 

RMAN> COPY 2> DATAFILE 3 TO '/BACKUP/file3.dbf', 3> DATAFILE 1 TO '/BACKUP/file1.dbf'; The COPY Command Image copy Image copy Redo logfile 1 Redo logfile 2 Database

Image Copy Parallelization : 

Image Copy Parallelization One COPY command with many channels RMAN> CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE disk parallelism 4; 2> COPY # 3 files copied in parallel 3> datafile 1 TO '/BACKUP/df1.dbf', 4> datafile 2 TO '/BACKUP/df2.dbf', 5> datafile 3 TO '/BACKUP/df3.dbf';RMAN> COPY # Second copy command 2> datafile 4 TO '/BACKUP/df4.dbf';

Copying the Whole Database : 

Copying the Whole Database Mount the database for a whole consistent backup. Use the REPORT SCHEMA command to list the files. Use the COPY command or make an image copy of each datafile. Use the LIST COPY command to verify the copies.

Making Incremental Backups : 

Making Incremental Backups Full backups contain all datafile blocks. Differential incremental backups contain only modified blocks fromlevel n or lower. Cumulative incrementalbackups contain only modified blocks fromlevel n-1 or lower. Full backup Differential incremental backup Cumulative incremental backup

Differential Incremental Backup Example : 

Differential Incremental Backup Example n level backup of all blocks that have changed since the most recent backup at level n or lower. Lvl Day Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Level 0 0 2 2 1 2 2 2 Level 0 0

Cumulative Incremental Backup Example : 

Cumulative Incremental Backup Example n level backup which contains all blocks changed since the previous backup at a level n – 1 or lower Lvl Day Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Level 0 0 2 2C 1 2C 2C Level 0 0 2

Backup in NOARCHIVELOG Mode : 

Backup in NOARCHIVELOG Mode Ensure sufficient space for the backup. Shut down using the NORMAL or IMMEDIATE clause. Mount the database. Allocate multiple channels if not using automatic. Run the BACKUP command. Verify that the backup is finished and cataloged. Open the database for normal use. RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE FILESPERSET 3;

RMAN Control File Autobackups : 

RMAN Control File Autobackups Use the CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP command to enable When enabled, RMAN automatically performs a control file autobackup after BACKUP or COPY commands Backup is given a default name

Tags for Backups and Image Copies : 

Tags for Backups and Image Copies Logical name assigned to a backup set or image copy month_full_backup week_full_backup Wednesday_1_backup Datafiles 1,3 Datafiles 2,4 Backup set

RMAN Dynamic Views : 

RMAN Dynamic Views V$ARCHIVED_LOG V$BACKUP_CORRUPTION V$COPY_CORRUPTION V$BACKUP_DATAFILE V$BACKUP_REDOLOG V$BACKUP_SET V$BACKUP_PIECE

Monitoring RMAN Backups : 

Monitoring RMAN Backups Correlate server sessions with channels with the SET COMMAND ID command. Query V$PROCESS and V$SESSION to determine which sessions correspond to which RMAN channels. Query V$SESSION_LONGOPS to monitor the progress of backups and copies. Use an operating system utility to monitor the process or threads.

Miscellaneous RMAN Issues : 

Miscellaneous RMAN Issues Abnormal termination of a Recovery Manager job Detecting physical and logical block corruption Detecting a fractured block during open backups

Summary : 

Summary In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Determine what type of RMAN backups should be taken Make backups with the RMAN COPY and BACKUP commands Back up the control file Back up the archived redo log files

Practice 11 Overview : 

Practice 11 Overview This practice covers the following topics: Using Recovery Manager to back up one tablespace datafile and a controlfile Using Recovery Manager to back up archived log files Using the RMAN COPY command to create an image copy of a database file

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