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Backup and Recovery Overview : 

Backup and Recovery Overview

Objectives : 

Objectives After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Describe the basics of database backup, restore, and recovery List the types of failure that may occur in an Oracle environment Define a backup and recovery strategy

Backup and Recovery Issues : 

Backup and Recovery Issues Protect the database from numerous types of failures Increase Mean-Time-Between-Failures (MTBF) Decrease Mean-Time-To-Recover (MTTR) Minimize data loss

Categories of Failures : 

Categories of Failures Statement failure User process failure User error Network failure Instance failure Media failure

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Causes of Statement Failures : 

Causes of Statement Failures Logic error in an application Attempt to enter invalid data into the table Attempt an operation with insufficient privileges Attempt to create a table but exceed allotted quota limits Attempt an INSERT or UPDATE to a table, causing an extent to be allocated, but with insufficient free space available in the tablespace

Resolutions for Statement Failures : 

Resolutions for Statement Failures Correct the logical flow of the program. Modify and reissue the SQL statement. Provide the necessary database privileges. Change the user’s quota limit by using the ALTER USER command. Add file space to the tablespace. Enable resumable space allocation.

Causes of User Process Failures : 

Causes of User Process Failures The user performed an abnormal disconnect in the session. The user’s session was abnormally terminated. The user’s program raised an address exception, which terminated the session.

Resolution of User Process Failures : 

Resolution of User Process Failures The PMON process detects an abnormally terminated user process. PMON rolls back the transaction and releases any resources and locks being held by it.

Possible User Errors : 

Possible User Errors SQL> DROP TABLE employees; SQL> TRUNCATE TABLE employees; SQL> UPDATE employees 2> SET salary = salary * 1.5; SQL> COMMIT; SQL> DELETE FROM employees; SQL> COMMIT;

Resolution of User Errors : 

Resolution of User Errors Train the database users. Recover from a valid backup. Import the table from an export file. Use LogMiner to determine the time of error. Recover with a point-in-time recovery. Use LogMiner to perform object-level recovery. Use FlashBack to view and repair historical data.

Causes of Instance Failure : 

146 146 Database Datafile 1 Datafile 2 Datafile 3 Controlfiles Redo log file 1 Redo log file 2 145 Causes of Instance Failure Instance SGA Redo log buffer Databuffer Large Pool Locks Shared pool Data dict.cache Shared SQLand PL/SQL ARCn Userprocess Serverprocess PGA Userprocess Serverprocess PGA 146 146 146 Parameterfile Passwordfile

Recovery from Instance Failure : 

Recovery from Instance Failure No special recovery action is needed from DBA. Start the instance. Wait for the “database opened” notification. Notify users. Check the alert log to determine the reason for the failure.

Causes of Media Failures : 

Causes of Media Failures Head crash on a disk drive Physical problem in reading from or writing to database files File was accidentally erased

Resolutions for Media Failures : 

Resolutions for Media Failures The recovery strategy depends on which backup method was chosen and which files are affected. If available, apply archived redo log files to recover data committed since the last backup.

Defining a Backup and Recovery Strategy : 

Defining a Backup and Recovery Strategy Business requirements Operational requirements Technical considerations Management concurrence

Business Requirements : 

Business Requirements Mean time to recover Mean time between failure Evolutionary process

Operational Requirements : 

Operational Requirements 24-hour operations Testing and validating backups Database volatility

Technical Considerations : 

Technical Considerations Resources: hardware, software, manpower, and time Physical image copies of the operating system files Logical copies of the objects in the database Database configuration Transaction volume which affects desired frequency of backups

Disaster Recovery Issues : 

Disaster Recovery Issues How will your business be affected in the event of a major disaster? Earthquake, flood, or fire Complete loss of machine Malfunction of storage hardware or software Loss of key personnel, such as the database administrator Do you have a plan for testing your strategy periodically?

Summary : 

Summary In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Evaluate potential failures in your environment Develop a strategy dictated by business, operational, and technical requirements Consider a test plan for a backup and recovery strategy

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