Cleaning validation

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principles of cleaning validation, objectives of cleaning validation, sampling methods, calculation of carry over limits

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Presentation Transcript

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CLEANING VALIDATION NEERAJ JADA II M.Pharm Guided by S.CHELLARAM M.Pharm Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutics QIS College of Pharmacy

CONTENTS:

CONTENTS Scope Principles Validation of cleaning processes Equipment & Personnel Microbiological Considerations Analytical methods Sampling General Direct surface sampling (direct method) Rinse samples (indirect method) Batch placebo method Establishment of Limits Change control/Revalidation

SCOPE:

SCOPE Cleaning Validation is to address the validation of cleaning procedures of equipment used in manufacture of pharmaceutical products Normally cleaning validation would be applicable for critical cleaning such as cleaning between manufacturing of one product and another, of surfaces that come into contact with products, drug products and API. Cleaning validation is done to remove the contaminants associated with previous products, residues of cleaning agents, Microbial contaminations.

PRINCIPLE:

PRINCIPLE The objectives of good manufacturing practices (GMP) include the prevention of possible contamination and cross-contamination of pharmaceutical starting materials and products. Pharmaceutical products can be contaminated by a variety of contaminants such as microbes, previous products (both API and excipient residues), residues of cleaning agents, airborne materials , such as dust and particulate matter, lubricants and ancillary material , such as disinfectants, and decomposition residues

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product residue breakdown caused by the use of strong acids and alkalis during the cleaning process breakdown products of the detergents , acids and alkalis that may be used as part of the cleaning process. Adequate cleaning procedures play an important role in preventing contamination and cross-contamination. Validation of cleaning methods provides documented evidence that an approved cleaning procedure will provide clean equipment, suitable for its intended use.

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The objective of cleaning validation is to prove that the equipment is consistently cleaned of product, detergent and microbial residues to an acceptable level , to prevent possible contamination and cross-contamination. Cleaning validation is not necessarily required for non-critical cleaning such as that which takes place between batches of the same product (or different lots of the same intermediate in a bulk process), or of floors, walls, the outside of vessels, and following some intermediate steps. Cleaning validation should be considered important in multiproduct facilities and should be performed among others, for equipment, sanitization procedures and garment laundering.

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The cleaning validation protocol should include there should be written SOP for Cleaning process the objectives of the validation process; the people responsible for performing and approving the validation study; the description of the equipment to be used, including a list of the equipment, make, model, serial number or other unique code; VALIDATION OF CLEANING PROCESSES

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the interval between the end of production and the commencement of the cleaning procedure (interval may be part of the validation challenge study itself) the maximum period that equipment may be left dirty before being cleaned as well as the establishment of the time that should elapse after cleaning and before use; the levels of microorganisms (bioburden); the cleaning procedures (documented in an existing SOP, including definition of any automated process) to be used for each product, each manufacturing system or each piece of equipment;

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all the equipment used for routine monitoring, e.g. conductivity meters, pH meters and total organic carbon analysers; the number of cleaning cycles to be performed consecutively; the sampling procedures to be used (direct sampling, rinse sampling, in process monitoring and sampling locations) and the rationale for their use; the data on recovery studies (efficiency of the recovery of the sampling technique should be established);

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the analytical methods (specificity and sensitivity) including the limit of detection and the limit of quantification; The acceptance criteria (with rationale for setting the specific limits) including a margin for error and for sampling efficiency; The choice of the cleaning agent should be documented and approved by the quality Control department and should be scientifically justified on the basis of the solubility of the materials to be removed; the design and construction of the equipment and surface materials to be cleaned; the safety of the cleaning agent; the ease of removal and detection; the product attributes; the minimum temp. ,volume of cleaning agent & rinse solution; the manufacturer's recommendations;

EQUIPMENT:

EQUIPMENT The procedures for the cleaning of surfaces of the equipment that come into contact with the product need to be validated. Consideration should be given to “non-contact” parts of the equipment into which product or any process material may migrate Critical areas should be identified particularly in large systems employing semi-automatic or fully automatic clean-in-place systems. Dedicated equipment should be used for products which are difficult to clean, equipment which is difficult to clean or for products with a high safety risk where it is not possible to achieve the required cleaning acceptance limits using a validated cleaning procedure.

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Ideally, there should be one process for cleaning a piece of equipment or system . This will depend on the products being produced, whether the cleaning occurs between batches of the same product (as in a large campaign) or whether the cleaning occurs between batches of different products. The design of equipment may influence the effectiveness of the cleaning process. Consideration should therefore be given to the design of the equipment when preparing the cleaning validation protocol, e.g. V-blenders, transfer pumps or filling lines.

PERSONNEL:

PERSONNEL It is difficult to validate a manual cleaning procedure Personnel or operators who perform cleaning. The cleaning personnel should be trained and should be effectively supervised. Appropriate calibration tools such as timers and measuring devices should be available

Detergents:

Detergents Detergents should facilitate the cleaning process and be easily removable . Detergents that have persistent residues such as cationic detergents which adhere very strongly to glass and are difficult to remove, should be avoided where possible. The composition of the detergent should be known to the manufacturer and its removal during rinsing, demonstrated. Acceptable limits for detergent residues after cleaning should be defined. The possibility of detergent breakdown should also be considered when validating cleaning procedures. Detergents should be released by quality control and, where possible, should meet local food standards or regulations.

MICROBIAL CONSIDERATIONS :

MICROBIAL CONSIDERATIONS The need to include measures to prevent microbial growth and remove contamination where it has occurred should be considered. There should be documented evidence to indicate that routine cleaning and storage of equipment does not allow microbial proliferation. The period and conditions for storage of unclean equipment before cleaning, and the time between cleaning and equipment reuse, should form part of the validation of cleaning procedures.

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Equipment should be stored in a dry condition after cleaning. Stagnant water should not be allowed to remain in equipment after cleaning. Control of the bioburden through adequate cleaning and appropriate storage of equipment is important to ensure that subsequent sterilization or sanitization procedures achieve the necessary assurance of sterility, and the control of pyrogens in sterile processing. Equipment sterilization processes may not be adequate to achieve significant inactivation or removal of pyrogens.

ANALYTICAL METHODS :

ANALYTICAL METHODS The analytical methods should be validated before the cleaning validation is performed. The methods chosen should detect residuals or contaminants specific for the substance(s) being assayed at an appropriate level of cleanliness (sensitivity). Validation of the analytical method should include as appropriate: precision, linearity and selectivity (the latter if specific analytes are targeted);/

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limit of detection (LOD); limit of quantitation (LOQ); recovery, by spiking with the analyte; and reproducibility. The detection limit for each analytical method should be sufficiently sensitive to detect the established acceptable level of the residue or contaminants.

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Suitable methods that are sensitive and specific should be used where possible and may include chromatographic methods e.g. high pressure liquid chromotography (HPLC), gas chromotography (GC), and high pressure thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)). Other methods may include (alone or in combination) measurement of total organic carbon (TOC), pH, or conductivity; ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy; and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

SAMPLING:

SAMPLING General Equipment should normally be cleaned as soon as possible after use. This may be especially important for operations with topical products, suspensions and bulk drug or where the drying of residues will directly affect the efficiency of a cleaning procedure. Two methods of sampling are considered to be acceptable. These are direct surface sampling and rinse samples. A combination of the two methods is generally the most desirable.

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The practice of resampling should not be used before or during cleaning and operations and is acceptable only in rare cases. Constant retesting and resampling can show that the cleaning process is not validated because these retests actually document the presence of unacceptable residue and contaminants resulting from an ineffective cleaning process. Direct surface sampling (direct method): This method of sampling is the most commonly used and involves taking an inert material (e.g. cotton wool) on the end of a probe (referred to as a “swab”) and rubbing it methodically across a surface.

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The type of sampling material used and its potential impact on the test data is important as the sampling material may interfere with the test. (For example, the adhesive used in swabs has been found to interfere with the analysis of samples.) Factors that should be considered include the supplier of the swab, area swabbed ( 5X5 cm), number of swabs used, whether they are wet or dry swabs, Swab handling and swabbing technique

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The location from which the sample is taken should take into consideration the composition of the equipment (e.g. glass or steel) and the location (e.g. blades, tank walls or fittings). Worst case locations should be considered. The protocol should identify the sampling locations. Critical areas, i.e. those hardest to clean, should be identified, particularly in large systems that employ semi-automatic or fully automatic clean-in-place systems. The sampling medium and solvent used should be appropriate to the task. The swabs are then added with dilution solvent and vortex mixed. The solvents were then analyzed by suitable analytical instrument for the presence of residues of the previous products.

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Rinse samples (indirect method): This method allows sampling of a large surface, of areas that are inaccessible or that cannot be routinely disassembled and provides an overall picture. Rinse samples may give sufficient evidence of adequate cleaning where accessibility of equipment parts can preclude direct surface sampling, and may be useful for checking for residues of cleaning agents, e.g. detergents.

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Rinse samples should be used in combination with other sampling methods such as surface sampling. There should be evidence that samples are accurately recovered. For example, a recovery of > 80% is considered good, > 50% reasonable and < 50% questionable. Batch placebo method: This method relies on the manufacture of a placebo batch which is then checked for carry-over of the previous product. It is an expensive and laborious process. It is difficult to provide assurance that the contaminants will be dislodged from the equipment surface uniformly. Additionally, if the particles of the contaminant or residue are large enough, they may not be uniformly dispersed in the placebo batch.

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The batch placebo method should be used in conjunction with rinse and/or surface sampling method(s). Samples should be taken throughout the process of manufacture. Traces of the preceding products should be sought in these samples. (Note that the sensitivity of the assay may be greatly reduced by dilution of the contaminant.)

ESTABLISHING ACCEPTABLE LIMITS:

ESTABLISHING ACCEPTABLE LIMITS Uniform distribution of contaminants is not guaranteed. The acceptance criteria established for contaminant levels in the sample should be practical, achievable and verifiable. The rationale for the residue limits established should be logical, and based on the knowledge of the materials involved. Each situation should be assessed individually. The manner in which limits are established should be carefully considered.

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In establishing residual limits it may not be adequate to focus only on the principal reactant, because other chemical variations may be more difficult to remove. Where necessary, screening using thin-layer chromatography should be performed in addition to chemical analyses. There should be no residue from the previous product, from reaction by-products and degradants, or from the cleaning process itself (e.g. detergents or solvents). The limit-setting approach can be product-specific

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Limits may be expressed as a concentration in a subsequent product (ppm), limit per surface area (mcg/cm2), or in rinse water as ppm. The sensitivity of the analytical methods should be defined to enable reasonable limits to be set. The rationale for selecting limits for carry-over of product residues should meet defined criteria.

Consider Product A and B are manufactured using an equipment train which consists of a blender, a milling machine, a compressing machine and a filling machine and their characteristics are:

Consider Product A and B are manufactured using an equipment train which consists of a blender, a milling machine, a compressing machine and a filling machine and their characteristics are product API (mg) Tablet Weight (mg) Batch Size (kg) Minimum daily therapeutic dose ( TDmin )mg of API Maximum daily therapeutic dose ( TDmin )mg of API A 10 50 200 5 20 B 15 75 120 15 60 Equipment used Surface Area,cm 2 Blender 160 000 Milling machine 30000 Compressing Machine 40000 Filling Machine 20000 Total Equipment train 250000 CALCULATION OF CARRY OVER LIMIT

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What is the Maximum allowable carry over (MAC) of residue A on the equipment train used to manufacture product B based on therapeutic dose ? MAC ATD = Maximum allowable carryover of product A based on therapeutic dose MTD A = Minimum daily therapeutic dose of Product A expressed as weight of API MDD B = Maximum daily dose of product B expressed as total weight of tablets BS B = Batch size of product B ( kg or mg ) SF = Safety factor ( 0.1% therapeutic dose) MAC A,TD = MDD B is 60 mg of API which represent 4 tablets. The total wt. of 4 tablets is 300 mg

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The three most commonly used criteria are: visually clean . (No residue should be visible on equipment after cleaning.) Spiking studies should determine the concentration at which most active ingredients are visible. This criterion may not be suitable for highpotency, low-dosage drugs; no more than 10 ppm of one product will appear in another product (basis for heavy metals in starting materials); and no more than 0.1% of the normal therapeutic dose of one product will appear in the maximum daily dose of a subsequent product.

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Revalidation of the cleaning process is to be done if Cleaning procedure is changed Raw materials are changed Change in formulation Change in Detergents New Detergents Modification of Equipment Cleaning process validation should be checked at regular intervals CHANGE CONTROL/ REVALIDATION

REFERENCE:

REFERENCE FDA Guide to inspection of validation of cleaning processes 1993. Pharmaceutical inspection convection, Recommen- dations on validation master plan, Installation and Operational qualification, Non sterile process validation & Cleaning Validation 2007.

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