Life processes, homeostatic mechanism,life style,sociodynamics inc

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LIFE PROCESSES:- Various functions are going inside our body & inside the body of all living organisms. These functions are necessary to maintain the living being. The maintenance functions of living organisms must go on even when they are not doing anything particular. Even when we are just sitting in front of computer, even if we are just asleep, this maintenance job has to go on. The processes which together perform this maintenance job are life processes.




NUTRITION:- Process of getting energy from outside sources. Process of nutrition is to break down these sources to release energy. Process of getting nutrition can vary from organism to organism & is affected by the external environment.

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B ase d on the Mode of getting food Organisms can be Classified as Follows:- Autotrophs Heterotrophs Autotrophs:- Make their own food. All green plants are autotrophs. The process of food preparation in plant is called photosynthesis. It involves making of Glucose with the help of carbon dioxide & water in the presence of sunlight.

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Photosynthesis can be expressed by following chemical reaction: 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O_____ C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon dioxide+ Water== Glucose+ Oxygen. Glucose thus formed is used by the plant to satisfy its energy needs. The excess amount is stored as starch in various parts of the plant.

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Heterotrophs:- Those organisms which are dependent on other organisms for their food are called Heterotrophs. Some animals, like humans have complex digestive system to break the food into basic constituents to make them fit for oxidation. Certain organisms break the food into basic molecules outside their body then absorb them e.g., fungi. Some organisms take food from other organisms without killing them e.g., parasite.

Human Digestive System:-:

Human Digestive System:- Human Digestive System is a complex & elaborate system. The digestive System carries out following functions: Intake of Food Digestion of Food Assimilation of food Expulsion of waste products.


RESPIRATION:- Breaking down of nutrients to release energy is called Respiration. A complex series of oxidation- reduction goes inside the cell to burn food to produce energy. This energy is used to carry out different activities inside a living organism . C6H12O6+6O2___6CO2+6H2O+674kcal. Oxygen is required for oxidation of Glucose during cellular respiration.

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The process of transportation of oxygen inside the body & that of carbon dioxide out of the body is called external respiration. Cellular Respiration:- Hemoglobin: RBCs in the blood contain Hb which carries oxygen to the cell & carbon dioxide away from the cell. Arteries: Arteries carry oxygenated blood from heart to different parts of the body. Veins: Veins carry deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body to heart.

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Heart: Heart functions like a pump & helps in pumping in the deoxygenated blood to lungs for oxygenation. Thereafter, heart pumps oxygenated blood to different parts of the body. Lungs: Lungs helps in sucking in oxygen from air & pumping out carbon dioxide in the air.


EXCRETION:- Expulsion of harmful substances, which are byproducts of life processes is called Excretion. In human body, many organs help in excreting harmful substances out of the body e.g., lungs expel CO2, skin expels some waste products through sweating, mouth expels some waste through spit & rectum expels waste through faeces. The main excretory organ in the human body is kidney. Kidney filters harmful substances from blood & expels them through urine.

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After all the metabolic activities, blood collects byproducts from different parts of the body & passes through kidney to filter out harmful products. Then only it goes to the heart for oxygenation This is the reason a malfunctioning kidney is a life threatening condition.


GROWTH & REPAIR:- Cellular Division:- The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division & duplication (replication). In cells with a nucleus (eukaryotes),the cell cycle can be divided in two brief periods: Interphase- during which the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis & duplicating its DNA.

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The Mitosis (M) phase-during which the cell splits itself into two distinct cells, often called “daughter cells”. The cell division is a vital process by which a single- celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells & some internal organs are renewed.

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Cellular healing:- The reparative process begins at approximately the same time as the injury & is interwoven with inflammation. Healing proceeds after the inflammatory debris has been removed. Healing may occur by regeneration in which the gradual repair of the defect occurs by proliferation of cells of the same type as those destroyed or by replacement.


REPRODUCTION:- Ovulation:- At puberty (usually between ages 12 & 14, but earlier for some; 10 or 11 years of age is not uncommon), the ova begin to mature. During a period known as the Follicular phase, an ovum enlarges as a type of cyst called a graffian follicle until it reaches the surface of the ovary, where transport occurs.

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The periodic discharge of matured ovum is referred to as ovulation. The ovum usually finds its way into the fallopian tube, where it is carried to the uterus. If it meets a spermatozoon, the male reproductive cell, a union occurs & conception takes place. After the discharge of ovum, the cells of the graffian follicle undergo a rapid change.

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Gradually, they become yellow ( corpus luteum ) & produce Progesterone, a hormone that prepares the uterus for receiving the fertilized ovum. Ovulation usually occurs 2 weeks prior to the next menstrual period. Menstrual cycle:- The menstrual cycle is a complex process involving the reproductive & endocrine systems. The ovaries produce steroid hormones, predominantly estrogens & progesterone.

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Estrogens are responsible for developing & maintaining the female reproductive organs & the secondary sex characteristics associated with the adult female. Estrogens play an important role in breast development & in monthly cyclic changes in the uterus. Progesterone is important in regulating the changes that occur in the uterus during the menstrual cycle. It is secreted by corpus luteum.

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Progesterone is the most important hormone for conditioning the endometrium in preparation for implantation of a fertilized ovum. If pregnancy occurs, the progesterone secretion becomes largely a function of the placenta & is essential for maintaining a normal pregnancy. Progesterone working with estrogen, prepares the breast for producing & secreting milk. Androgens are also produced by the ovaries, but only in small amounts.

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These hormones are involved in the early development of the follicle & also affect the female libido. Two gonadotropic hormones are released by the pituitary gland: FSH & LH FSH is primarily responsible for stimulating the ovaries to secrete estrogen. LH is primarily responsible for stimulating progesterone production. The secretion of ovarian hormones follows a cyclic pattern that results in changes in the uterine endometrium & in menstruation.

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This cycle is typically 28 days in length, but there are many normal variations (21 to 42 days). Proliferative phase:-just after menstruation. FSH output increases, stimulating estrogen secretion. Causes the endometrium to thicken & become more vascular. Secretory phase:- Day 14 in a 28-day cycle.

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LH output increases, stimulating ovulation. Under the combined stimulus of estrogen & progesterone, the endometrium reaches the peak of its thickening & vascularization. Luteal Phase:- Begins after ovulation & is characterized by the secretion of progesterone from the corpus luteum. If the ovum is fertilised,estrogen and progesterone level remains high &the complex hormonal changes of pregnancy follow.

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If the ovum has not been fertilised,FSH & LH output diminishes estrogen & progesterone secretion falls the ovum disintegrates& the endometrium which has became thick & congested sheds off. The product consisting of old blood,mucus,endometrial tissue is discharged through the cervix into the vagina. After the menstrual flow stops the cycle begins again; the endometrium proliferates & thickness from estrogenic stimulation,& ovulation recurs. During the time of coitus the sperms &ovum combine together to form zygote. The zygote then undergoes multiple cell divisions to form the embryo then it develops as the fetus.



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KEY CONCEPT Homeostasis is the regulation and maintenance of the internal environment of the body

History of Homeostasis:-:

History of Homeostasis:- Claude Bernard (1813 -1 8 78) French physiologist Developed the concept of the internal milieu. Recognized that many animals regulate their internal environment even if the external environment changes. Walter Cannon (1871 - 1945) Coined the term “Homeostasis” in 1926. Realized the importance of the autonomic nervous system in maintaining a constant internal environment.

I. Homeostasis Conditions within the body must remain within a narrow range – like your body temperature:

I. Homeostasis Conditions within the body must remain within a narrow range – like your body temperature a. Homeostasis involves keeping the internal environment within set ranges

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b. Control systems help maintain homeostasis . sensors gather data control center receives data, sends messages communication system delivers messages to target organs, tissues targets respond to change pore sweat glands hair follicle muscle goose bump

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II. Feedback Loops a. Negative feedback loops are necessary for homeostasis Feedback compares current conditions to set ranges. Negative feedback stops the change

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b. Negative Feedback Loop Example : Holding breath, CO 2 levels rise Control system forces exhale, inhale O 2 / CO 2 level returns to normal

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c. Positive feedback increases change Example: Torn blood vessel stimulates release of clotting factors growth hormones stimulate cell division platelets fibrin white blood cell red blood cell blood vessel clot

Negative Feedback System:

Negative Feedback System Reverses a change in a controlled condition Ex. Regulation of blood pressure The sequence of events ends with the negation of the original stimulus, so it’s called a “negative” feedback system

Positive Feedback System:

Positive Feedback System Tends to strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the body’s controlled conditions. Ex. Childbirth The cycle of stretching cervix, hormone release, and stronger contractions is interrupted by the birth of baby.

What mechanisms are there to cool the body down? :

What mechanisms are there to cool the body down? Sweating When your body is hot, sweat glands are stimulated to release sweat. The liquid sweat turns into a gas (it evaporates) To do this, it needs heat. It gets that heat from your skin. As your skin loses heat, it cools down.


Sweating The skin

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What mechanisms are there to cool the body down? Vasodilation Your blood carries most of the heat energy around your body. There are capillaries underneath your skin that can be filled with blood if you get too hot. This brings the blood closer to the surface of the skin so more heat can be lost. This is why you look red when you are hot!

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If the temperature rises, the blood vessel dilates (gets bigger). This means more heat is lost from the surface of the skin

What mechanisms are there to warm the body up?:

What mechanisms are there to warm the body up? Vasoconstriction This is the opposite of vasodilation The capillaries underneath your skin get constricted (shut off). This takes the blood away from the surface of the skin so less heat can be lost.

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If the temperature falls, the blood vessel constricts (gets shut off). This means less heat is lost from the surface of the skin

What mechanisms are there to warm the body up?:

What mechanisms are there to warm the body up? Piloerection This is when the hairs on your skin “stand up” . It is sometimes called “goose bumps” or “chicken skin”! The hairs trap a layer of air next to the skin which is then warmed by the body heat The air becomes an insulating layer.

Advantages of Homeostasis :

Advantages of Homeostasis Homeostasis has survival value because it means an animal can adapt to a changing environment. It can deal with the temperature difference you face when you step out your front door. The body will attempt to maintain a norm, the desired level of a factor to achieve homeostasis. However, it can only work within tolerable limits, where extreme conditions can disable the negative feedback mechanism In these instances, death can result, unless medical treatment is executed to bring about the natural occurrence of these feedback mechanisms


HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCE:- Homeostatic imbalance occurs when the human body’s internal environmental variables become disturbed. The condition can be attributed to a number of factors which include the aging of the person’s organs and the organ’s control systems or feedback mechanisms, which can cause them to malfunction or not perform up to the standard that has been normal throughout the majority of the person’s lifetime.

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Homeostasis can also be disturbed when certain pathological situations are present in the body and overwhelm the controls and mechanisms that have been behaving in a healthy and life-sustaining manner. Diseases that result from a homeostatic imbalance include diabetes, dehydration , hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia, gout , and any disease caused by a toxin present in the bloodstream.

Controlling Glucose levels:

Controlling Glucose levels Your cells also need an exact level of glucose in the blood. Excess glucose gets turned into glycogen in the liver This is regulated by 2 hormones (chemicals) from the pancreas called: Insulin Glucagon

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If there is too much glucose in the blood, Insulin converts some of it to glycogen Glycogen Insulin Glucose in the blood

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If there is not enough glucose in the blood, Glucagon converts some glycogen into glucose. Glycogen Glucagon Glucose in the blood


Diabetes Some people do not produce enough insulin. When they eat food, the glucose levels in their blood cannot be reduced. This condition is known as DIABETES. Diabetics sometimes have to inject insulin into their blood. They have to be careful of their diet.

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The glucose in the blood increases. Glycogen Insulin Glucose in the blood But there is no insulin to convert it into glycogen. Glucose concentration rises to dangerous levels.

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Time Glucose Concentration Meal eaten Insulin is produced and glucose levels fall to normal again. Glucose levels rise after a meal. Normal

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Time Glucose Concentration Meal eaten Insulin is not produced so glucose levels stay high Glucose levels rise after a meal. Diabetic



Life style:-:

Lifestyle is a term to describe the way a person lives, which was originally coined by Austrian psychologist Alfred Adler in 1929. A lifestyle is a characteristic bundle of behaviours that makes sense to both others and oneself in a given time and place, including social relations, consumption, entertainment, and dress. The habits, attitudes, tastes, moral standards, economic level, etc., that together constitute the mode of living of an individual or group. Life style :-

Life style -risk factor:

A characteristic, condition, or behaviour that increases the possibility of disease or injury. High blood pressure, high serum cholesterol, and smoking are risk factors for heart disease. A factor that causes a person or a group of people to be particularly susceptible to an unwanted, unpleasant, or unhealthful event, such as immunosuppression, which increases the incidence and severity of infection, Eg : cigarette smoking, which increases the risk of developing a respiratory or cardiovascular di sease. Life style -risk factor

Lifestyle diseases:

While allopathic medicine is the most effective system for acute medical and surgical emergencies, it has only a limited ability to change the course of many serious degenerative diseases. A collection of lifestyle effects and environmental factors accumulate over the years and develop into lifestyle diseases, or diseases of civilization. They are different from other diseases because they are lifestyle diseases which are potentially preventable. Lifestyle diseases

Factors and their causes:

Air and Water Pollution - Air pollution is a Modifiable Risk Factor for cancer, especially lung cancer. Carcinogens derived from car emissions, industrial activity, burning of solid wastes and fuels remain in the air from four to forty days and travel long distances. Our drinking water contains many carcinogens, including asbestos, arsenic, metals, and synthetic organic compounds. Asbestos and nitrates are associated with gastrointestinal cancers; arsenic is associated with skin cancer; and synthetic organic chemicals are associated with cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder. . Factors and their causes

Prevention of pollution:

Throughout our lives, we expose ourselves to many chemicals in small amounts and in many combinations unique to our culture and environment. We can prevent most cancers if the factors that cause them can be controlled or eliminated. Pollution is not part of a healthy lifestyle. Healthy living means taking action by removing yourself from all forms of pollution Prevention of pollution


The excessive use of alcohol is a hazardous practice that can threaten life and health. It can cause liver cirrhosis ,fetal alcohol syndrome and an increase in the risk for some cancers. Motor vehicle accidents. Homicides and suicide ALCHOLISM AND PROBLEM DRINKING

Excess Sunlight and Radiation :

Human studies show that radiation is a Modifiable Risk Factor for developing cancer. Radiation is exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays, nuclear radiation, X-rays, and radon.. Excess Sunlight and Radiation

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Always use a sun block with at least an SPF of 30. A billed hat is also a good idea to keep your head and eyes shaded Sunlight and specifically the ultraviolet rays are the principal offender causing cataracts. Eye protection with sunglasses preferably of the polarized variety, will prevent the cumulative effects of these damaging rays. Have your house checked for radon gas. Chronic and excessive tanning is not part of a healthy lifestyle. Healthy living means wearing SPF 15+ sun screen lotion and limiting your exposure to the sun


High Cholesterol - Blood cholesterol level is a Modifiable Risk Factor for CVD. Total cholesterol below 180 poses a low risk; between 180 - 200 is a good range; more than 200 increases your CVD risk, while more than 250 will clearly give you a higher risk. HYPERTENSION OR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: An unusual disorder that lacks signs and symptoms, thus explaining the term silent killer. High blood pressure means more than 140/90 mm Hg. Normal blood pressure should range from 110/70 to 130/90.. HIGH CHOLESTROL AND HYPERTENSION:-


you can’t control your blood pressure by your diet and exercise alone you need to be on medication. A high fat / sugar diet is not part of a healthy lifestyle. Healthy living means taking action by avoiding junk food Prevention:-

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Obesity and excess weight are common problems in us today. Body weight and mass,appearance,percent body fat and level of fitness are all factors that are important to think about when trying to determine whether someone is overweight or “obese”. Someone who is 20 percent above his or her ideal weight is considered “obese” Obesity:-

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Obesogenic Environment

Risk factors:-:

Heart diseases Hyper tension Stroke Adult onset diabetes Some forms of cancer Risk factors:-


Obtain and maintain a normal body weight. The very bottom line for optimizing personal longevity is eating less. Always munching on junk food is not part of a healthy lifestyle. Healthy living means taking action by eating in moderation. Exercises Prevention:-

Nutrition and Diet:-:

A healthy diet is good for preventing or managing all chronic diseases, and for losing weight, boosting energy and promoting overall good health. There is a strong correlation between diet and nutritional deficiencies and many cancers. The National Academy of Sciences and others estimate that nutritional factors account for 60 percent of cancer cases in women and 40 percent in men. Eating healthy is part of a healthy lifestyle. Healthy living means taking action by eating a healthy diet, on a daily basis. Nutrition and Diet:-

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Smoking is a Modifiable Risk Factor for more disease processes than any other risk factor and causes more deaths than any other lifestyle cause. It has been estimated that 30 percent of all cancers may be related to smoking, either directly or indirectly. All tobacco products are included in this risk factor, not just cigarettes. Smoking is not part of a healthy lifestyle. Healthy living means taking action by stop smoking. Smoking:-


Stress and mental turmoil enhance susceptibility to most illnesses. By creating a milieu of harmony and peace of mind, one can reduce the incidence of these maladies. Stressful living is not part of a healthy lifestyle. Healthy living means taking action by starting a modest stress reduction program. Stress:-


Sleep is an extremely important health behavior Healthy sleep has been established in research to be at least as important and possibly more important than diet and exercise in predicting longevity. “Sleep debt” and driving are a dangerous combination also causes stomach upset. Sleep:-

Dietary Excesses :

fat (mainly saturated and heat treated polyunsaturated oils) protein (has a diuretic effect and increases the workload of the digestive system) caloric intake (often called "under nutrition") added sugar and salt alcohol Dietary excesses are not part of a healthy lifestyle. Healthy living means taking action by cutting back on all dietary excesses. Dietary Excesses

Sedentary lifestyle:

Sedentary lifestyle is a medical term used to denote a type of lifestyle with no or irregular physical activity. A person who lives a sedentary lifestyle may colloquially be known as a couch potato . It is commonly found in both the developed and developing world. Sedentary activities include sitting, reading, watching television and computer use for much of the day with little or no vigorous physical exercise. A sedentary lifestyle can contribute to many preventable causes of death. Sedentary lifestyle

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Sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity can contribute to or be a risk factor for: Anxiety Cardiovascular disease Mortality in elderly men by 30% and double the risk in elderly women Depression High blood pressure Obesity Osteoporosis Lipid disorders Kidney Stones

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Analyse your lifestyle. Smoking Stress Snacks Overweight Unsafe Sex Alcohol



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Some of the social factors having an influence on health and explanations of their role as causes of disease are reviewed below:- 1) Social and cultural change:- A number of studies conducted during the 1960s and early 1970s found higher rates of disease among people who changed jobs, place of residence or life circumstances. For example, one study found that men reared on farms who moved to urban centres to take middle-class jobs had higher rates of coronary heart disease than men who continued to work on the farm or who took up labouring jobs in cities (Syme et al 1964). Similar observations have been made with respect to cancer.

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2) Social support:- studies have found that social integration exerts a protective effect on the incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction in men aged 50 and over (Vogt et al 1992) while social isolation increased the risk of stroke in a study of male health professionals in the USA (Kawachi et al 1996). There is also strong and consistent evidence to show that lack of social support, social isolation and not being married have an influence on long-term survival among men following an initial myocardial infarction (Williams et al 1992). The mechanisms by which social and emotional support enhances or protects health are not known.

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3) Life events:- Life events such as bereavement, unemployment & chronic fatal diseases have also been implicated in the mechanisms leading to physical disorders. They have been linked to diseases such as duodenal ulcer, and to abdominal pain leading to appendectomy (Creed 1981). 4) Occupational hierarchies and the organization of work:- The physical environments in which people work are often hazardous and damaging to health.

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Air pollution at work, exposure to carcinogens, working with machinery and industrial accidents take a large toll on the health of manual workers. lack of freedom to make decisions at work, particularly when jobs are stressful or psychologically demanding, is linked both to at-risk behaviours such as smoking, physiological risk factors such as high blood pressure and health outcomes such as heart disease. 5) Unemployment:- There are two main reasons why unemployment could conceivably affect health First, it is related to standards of living and the material conditions of life, second it is a stressful event which may become chronic and deprive an individual of a social role, meaningful daily existence and contact with others.

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Poverty, stress and insecurity, particularly housing insecurity, have all been implicated in the onset of the health problems following unemployment. CONCLUSION:- The basic cause of poor health is an unhealthy lifestyle. Your natural health is under your own control. It is up to you to take action!

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