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it contains the whole chapter of manufacturing industries of class 10th cbse


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INTRODUCTION MANUFACTURING – Production of goods in large quantities after processing of raw materials to more vulnerable products. EXAMPLES- 1) paper from wood. 2) sugar from sugarcane.


IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development because- It helps people by providing jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors. Industrial development helps in eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce , and brings in much needed foreign exchange. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.


CONTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRIY TO NATIONAL ECONOMY Share of manufacturing sector in India’s GDP: 17%. This is much lower in comparison to some East Asian economies, where it is 25 to 35 per cent. Since 2003, manufacturing is once again growing at the rate of 9 to 10 per cent per annum. The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council(NMCC) has been set up with this objective.

Industrial Location :

Industrial Location Location of an industry depends on various factors such as: Availability of raw material. Availability of cheap labour. Availability of power and other infrastructure. Proximity to markets. Availability of adequate and swift means of transportation.


CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES BASIS CLASSIFICATION INDUSTRIES SOURCES OF RAW MATERILS Agro-based Cotton, wool, jute, silk, rubber, sugar, tea, coffee Mineral-based Iron, steel, cement, aluminium, petrochemicals ROLE Basic industries Iron and steel, copper smelting, aluminium smelting Consumer industries Sugar, cosmetics, paper, machines etc. CAPITAL Small industries Match-making, handicrafts, toys, plastic containers and other goods Large industries Cosmetics, drugs, electronic items OWNERSHIP Public sector BHEL, SAIL, NTPC Private sector TISCO, BAJAJ, BPL Joint sector OIL Cooperatives Sugar industry (Maharashtra), coir industry (Kerala)


AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES Second largest employer after agriculture. Contributes about 4% to the GDP. Only industry that is self-reliant. COTTON TEXTILES: Produced with hand-spinning, power looms, handlooms and mills. Concentrated in Maharashtra and Gujarat Maximum production by power looms. India has the second largest installed capacity of spindles after China. India accounts for 1/4th of the total world trade in cotton yarn.

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JUTE INDUSTRIES: India is the largest producer of raw jute. Second largest exporter after Bangladesh Located in West Bengal. SUGAR INDUSTRIES: India is the second largest producer of sugar after Brazil. India is the largest producer of gur and khandsari. Sugar mills are located in U.P., Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. Most mills are in the cooperative sector.


MINERAL BASED INDUSTRIES These industries use minerals and metals as raw materials. IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES: Basic Industry i.e., it is the basis for all other industries. Steel = Iron ore + Cooking Coal + Limestone in the ratio of 4:2:1 India is the ninth largest steel producer. India is the largest producer of sponge iron. There are 10 primary steel plants in India. E.g., Bokaro, Raurkela, Burnpur, Bhilai, Durgapur etc. SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited) is the nodal marketing agency of steel produced by public sector undertakings. Located mostly in the Chotanagpur Plateau region.


STEEL PRODUCTION IN INDIA AND CHINA 6 1 130 25 141 174 26 27 211 29 270 32.2

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ALUMINIUM SMELTING It is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. Light, corrosion free and good conductor of heat. Used in aircraft, utensils and wire industry. 8 aluminium smelting plants in India. E.g., NALCO and BALCO in orissa, west bengal, kerela, uttar pradesh, chhattisgarh, maharashtra and tamil nadu. Bauxite, the raw material used in the smelters is a bulky, dark reddish coloured rock..

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CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES Contribute 3% to the GDP. Third largest in Asia. Inorganic Chemicals: Sulphuric acid, plastics, adhesive and paints. Organic Chemicals: Petrochemicals, dyes and drugs. FERTILISER Industry This industry manufactures nitrogenous fertilizers (Urea), phosphoric fertilizers, ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilizers. India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers. Located in Gujarat, U.P., Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Ke rala.

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CEMENT Industry Cement is manufactured from limestone, silica, aluminium and gypsum. Located mainly in Gujarat. First cement plant: Chennai in 1904. Exported to the Gulf countries, Africa and South Asia. AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY Manufactures cars, scooters, motorcycles, trucks, buses, three-wheelers etc. Located in Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bangalore.

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Information technology and electronics industry Includes transistors, television, telephones, computers and radars. Bangalore is the electronic capital of India. This industry has given a boost to employment generation in India. Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation Industries cause four types of pollution: Land : Land gets polluted and the quality of soil gets degraded when huge quantities of industrial wastes are dumped, rendering the soil unfertile.

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Air : The emission of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and other harmful gases from industries and vehicles causes irreparable damage to the atmosphere. The smoke emitted by factories contains small dust particles which are inhaled by human beings and can cause various pulmonary and other diseases. Water : The industrial wastes and chemical effluents discharged into water bodies contaminate the water and make it unfit for human use. Noise : The blaring horns of automobiles, noise of machinery in the factories and large scale construction activity creates noise pollution which causes irritation and can also lead to deafness.

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Controlling Environmental Degradation Minimising the use of water. Reusing used water by purifying it. Rainwater harvesting for conserving water. Treating industrial and chemical effluents before discharging them into rivers. Minimising the use of fuels that produce harmful gases and adopting clever fuels such as biogas and natural gas. Establishing waste treatment and sewage treatment plants for preventing land and water pollution.


NTPC National Thermal Power Corporation A public sector undertaking (PSU) Established in 1975 Has an ISO 14001 certification for EMS (Environment Management System)

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