Charles Correa, New BOMBAY, ULWE, THE BRITISH COUNCIL

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URBAN PLANNING, BASE OF THE PLANNING, UNBEATABLE SURVEY & STUDY BEFORE IMPLEMENTATION

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1 Charles Correa 1 Sept 1930 – 16 June 2015 Architect Urban Planner and Activist.

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PLANNING FOR BOMBAY BY CHARLES CORREA 2

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 Bombay is the financial capital of India  a giant metropolis  Contributing almost half the total revenue collected by the GoI.  Like many other cities pressure from distress migration coming in from the rural areas in its hinterland.  Today office space in Bombay’s CBD costs twice as much as it does in Manhattan despite the fact that the average American office worker earns thirty times more than his counterpart in India 3 Intro

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 Like many other seaports around the world Bombay is located on a long and narrow breakwater protecting the harbour from open Sea.  The American Civil war 1867 blocked the supply of cotton. An alternate source had to be found: Indian Cotton to be shipped out through the port of Bombay.  Linear North-South Pattern 4 Shape

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 Every time the city got more overcrowded the municipality just extended the city limits further northward.  Like a rubber band it is ready to snap. 5

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 Daily trigger off massive flows of traffic  Southern in morning Northward in the evening. 6 Movement

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7  To avoid this gruelling commuting people try to live as close as possible to their work place.  Hence the spiralling real estate prices in the CBD at the southern end.  Much of this area pre-empted by upper middle income groups the poor are forced to live wherever they can.  On city pavement in squatter settlements in overcrowded slums up to 10 people and more in a single room tenement.

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 In 1964 the Bombay Municipality published their Draft Plan meant to deal with the city’s growth over the next two decades and invited comments and suggestions from the Public.  We submitted a memorandum to the Municipality suggesting that a better strategy for dealing with appalling pressures on the southern end of the city was to re-structure this North-south pattern. What we proposed in essence was to integrate the island of Bombay with the mainland to the east opening up new growth centres across the harbour so that the primacy of the existing CBD would be challenged and Bombay’s North-south linear structure would metamorphose into a circular polycentric one focusing around the harbour. 9 Draft Dp

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 Through public ownership of the land to help finance service infrastructure Public Transport Housing Poor as well as generating a new pattern of jobs.  Trying to use this new growth itself to re-structure the city.  The suggestions we made in 1964 surprisingly found public support finally in 1970 the state Govt. accepted the basic strategies notified 22000 ha of land for acquisition.  CIDCOThe City Industrial Development Corporation 11 CIDCO

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 Working as Chief Architect to CIDCO1970 to 1974 for taking a more comprehensive overview on many problems of which one had seen only fragments.  Examine two most critical aspects:  HousingPoorer Sections of society  Mass TransportProvides access to jobs 15 Arranging the Scenery

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 1. Courtyards Terrace: For private activitiesCooking Sleeping  2. The Front doorstep: Children play meet your Neighbour  3. Community places: Water tap or Village Well  4. The Principal urban area: Maidans used by the whole city 16 System of Space

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 Too many attempts at low cost housing perceive it only as many dwelling units as possible on a given site without any concern for the other spaces involved in the system.  Result: The desperate effort of the poor trying to live in a context totally unrelated to their needs. 18 Low Cost Housing

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 In short the issue of providing housing especially for the urban poor is not so much a question of inventing new materials but rather one of re-adjusting land-use allocations across the city so that more space is available for residential use. 19 Providing Housing

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 The problems of increasing city size means servicing the larger area will increase travel time cost of a mass transport system.  Now a mass transport system is a linear element. It only becomes viable in the context of a land use plan that develops corridors of high density demand. Chandigarh is difficult to service with public transport. 20 Mobility Jobs

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 This is how the system grows:  Bus line generating a series of sectors of approximately equal importance.  Let’s call them type A.  Location Grows Type B.  Interchanges Generates new activity type C. 21

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1. Incrementalism: Housing unit should be able to grow with the family’s requirements earning capacity. 2. Identity: Can be colonised by the occupants and modified to their social/cultural/religious needs. 3. Pluralism: myriad elements that make up society itself. 4. Income Generation: low rise built form generates jobs… 5. Equity: Sq.ft of Dwelling Needed 6. Open to sky space: additional living spaces 7. Disaggregation: need to find demand breaking them down into many small supply 24 Future House

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Our cities are precious they produce the skills we need for managing development. Our Government must anticipate urban problems and not just begin to re-act after the crises develops. 25

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27 Planner Needs to Do… There is no shortage of housing but there is a tragic shortage of the urban context in which these solutions are viable. That then is our real responsibility to help generate that urban context.

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ULWE: NEW BOMBAY CITY CENTRE 1991 BY CHARLES CORREA 28

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 1580 ha. 1. Preparing the Land-use Plan 2. Planning the CBD Formulating Urban Design Controls Documents for the building therein. 3. Designing 1000 housing units for different income groups. 30 Ulwe

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1. Affordability: The Income profile to determine the budget available for Housing 2. Options: the costs of available building materials construction Technologies Usability Different weather condition road specifications water supply sewerage electricity transport 3. The Site: Contours soil Conditions etc. 31 Parameters Steps

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Second step involved comparing the pattern of affordability of the various Options so as to estimate the amount of land required for each income group at various locations. Large Number of options available. Third step involved finding ways to deploy the transport network of cycle paths bus routes tram lines and commuter railway This three steps clear the images. 33 Steps

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To avoid straight waste of monsoon water in the sea 1. Retention Pond 2. Balancing Ponddry Season 34 Managing rainwater

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Sit out in the evening To catch the cool breezes at sunrise of morning Today this coherence has been destroyed by massive set backs stipulated by municipal rules which separate building from road. 36 View

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1. The size of the building floor print is maximised so that sufficient floor area can be generated without going into high- rise construction. 2. Instead of Specifying a minimum front open space for each plot a compulsory building line is delineated. 3. Curtain walling which runs through the street level 4. Stepped sections which allows individual apartments to have terraces with central garden over view. 41 Coherent Urban Form

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BRITISH COUNCIL DELHI 1987-92 BY CHARLES CORREA 46

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1. A Library an Auditorium an Art gallery and the Headquarters of their offices in India. 2. Elements arranged in a series of layers recalling the historic interfaces. 47 Diverse Functions

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Placed along the length of the site connecting the entrance gate to rear boundary at the other end. 1. Hinduism-the energy centre of the cosmos 2. The Traditional Islamic Char Bagh Garden of Paradise 3. European iconin Marble granite Mythic values of Science and Progress 48 3 axes Mundi

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54 ©Kenneth Frampton

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55 ©Kenneth Frampton

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