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Manoj Patel (Enrollment No. 120420748004) Guided by: Prof. Bhasker Bhatt Guided by: Prof. Anuj Chandiwala :

SARVAJANIK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, SURAT 1 Manoj Patel (Enrollment No. 120420748004) Guided by: Prof. Bhasker Bhatt Guided by: Prof. Anuj Chandiwala "GPS" GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES (IDE-II)


CONTENTS 2 1. Introduction 2.Three Aspects Concern GPS 3. Principle of Measuring Signal Transit Time 4. Determining a Position on a Plane 5. Effect and Correction of Time Error 6. Description of The Entire System 7. Differential GPS 8. References


Introduction 3 Using the Global Positioning System the following two values can be determined anywhere on Earth. One’s exact location (longitude, latitude & height co-ordinates)(20m to approx.1mm) The precise time ( UTC ) accurate to within a range of 60ns to approx. 5ns .

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4 Knowing The Position

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5 GPS ( NAVigation System with Timing & Ranging Global Positioning System, NAVSTARGPS ) was developed by the U.S. Department of Defense( DoD ) (civilians and military personnel) The civil signal SPS (Standard Positioning Service) can be used freely by the general public, whilst the military signal PPS(Precise Positioning Service)can only be used by authorized government agencies. The first satellite was placed in orbit on 22nd February 1978, and there are currently 24 operational satellites orbiting the Earth at a height of 20,180 km on 6 different orbital planes. Their orbits are inclined at 55° to the equator, ensuring that a least 4 satellites are in radio communication with any point on the planet. Each satellite orbits the Earth in approximately 12 hours and has four atomic clocks on board.

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6 Three Aspects Concern GPS It had to provide users with the capability of determining position, speed and time, whether in motion or at rest. It had to have a continuous, global, 3-dimensional positioning capability with a high degree of accuracy, irrespective of the weather. It had to offer potential for civilian use.

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7 Principle of Measuring Signal Transit Time At some time or other during a stormy night you have almost certainly attempted to work out how far away you are from a flash of lightning. The distance can be established quite easily distance = the time the lightning flash is perceived (start time) until the thunder is heard (stop time) multiplied by the speed of sound(approx. 330 m/s). The difference between the start and stop time is termed the transit time. Signal Transit Time

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Distance = transit time • the speed of sound The GPS system functions according to exactly the same principle. In order to calculate one’s exact position, all that needs to be measured is the signal transit time between the point of observation and four different satellites whose positions are known. Generating GPS Signal Transit Time

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9 Atomic clocks are currently the most precise instruments known, losing a maximum of one second every 30,000 to 1,000,000 years. In order to make them even more accurate, they are regularly adjusted or synchronised from various control points on Earth. Each satellite transmits its exact position and its precise on board clock time to Earth at a frequency of 1575.42 MHz. These signals are transmitted at the speed of light (300,000 km/s) and therefore require approx. 67.3 ms to reach a position on the Earth’s surface located directly below the satellite.

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10 Position by One Satellite

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11 Measuring signal transit time and knowing the distance to a satellite is still not enough to calculate one’s own position in 3-D space. To achieve this, four independent transit time measurements are required. It is for this reason that signal communication with four different satellites is needed to calculate one’s exact position.

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12 Determining a Position on a Plane Two satellites are sufficient to determine a position on the X/Y plane

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13 In reality, a position has to be determined in 3-d, rather than on a plane. (height Z), an additional third satellite must be available to determine the true position. If the distance to the three satellites is known, all possible positions are located on the surface of three spheres whose radii correspond to the distance calculated. The position sought is at the point where all three surfaces of the spheres intersect.

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14 Description of The Entire System The GPS comprises three segments The space segment (all functional satellites) The control segment (all ground stations involved in the monitoring of the system: master control station, monitor stations, and ground control stations) The user segment (all civil and military GPS users)

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15 Three Segments of GPS

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16 Rotation Of Satellite

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17 Space Segment - Satellites Orbiting The Earth

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18 Control Segment - The control & monitoring stations The control segment (Operational Control System OCS) consists of a Master Control Station located in the state of Colorado, five monitor stations equipped with atomic clocks that are spread around the globe in the vicinity of the equator, and three ground control stations that transmit information to the satellites. Most important tasks of the control segment Observing the movement of the satellites and computing orbital data Monitoring the satellite clocks and predicting their behaviour Synchronizing on board satellite time Relaying precise orbital data received from satellites in communication Relaying further information, including satellite health, clock errors etc.

Differential GPS:

Differential GPS 19 The majority of data collected using GPS for GIS is differentially corrected to improve accuracy. The underlying premise of differential GPS ( DGPS ) is that any two receivers that are relatively close together will experience similar atmospheric errors. This GPS receiver is the base or reference station. The base station receiver calculates its position based on satellite signals and compares this location to the known location. The difference is applied to the GPS data recorded by the second GPS receiver, which is known as the roving receiver. The corrected information can be applied to data from the roving receiver in real time in the field using radio signals or through postprocessing .

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20 References TITLE: GPS BASICS, Introduction to the system Application overview Date: 26/03/2002 Author: Jean-Marie Zogg 2. Global Positioning System , Standard Positioning System Service, Signal Specification, 2nd Edition, 1995, page 18,

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