impulse turbine

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WATER TURBINE A water turbine is a rotary engine that takes energy from moving water . Water turbines were developed in the 19th century and Now they are mostly used for electric power generation . They harness a clean and renewable energy source, but can cause indirect environmental damage associated with water storage and construction.


WATER TURBINE Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades. Since the runner is spinning, the force acts through a distance (force acting through a distance is the definition of work ). In this way, energy is transferred from the water flow to the turbine.

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Water turbines are divided into two groups: Reaction turbines Impulse turbines

Reaction turbines:: 

Reaction turbines: Francis Kaplan Tyson Gorlov

Impulse Turbines : 

Impulse Turbines Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. The jet pushes on the turbine's curved blades which changes the direction of the flow . The resulting change in momentum ( impulse ) causes a force on the turbine blades . Since the turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work ). Impulse turbines are most often used in very high head applications .

Types of Impulse turbine: 

Types of Impulse turbine Water wheel: A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of free-flowing or falling water into useful forms of power . A water wheel consists of a large wooden or metal wheel, with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface . Most commonly, the wheel is mounted vertically on a horizontal axle , but the tub or Norse wheel is mounted horizontally on a vertical shaft.

Types of Impulse turbine: 

Types of Impulse turbine Pelton wheel: The Pelton wheel is an impulse turbine which is among the most efficient types of water turbines . It was invented by Lester Allan Pelton in the 1870s. The Pelton wheel extracts energy from the impulse ( momentum ) of moving water, as opposed to its weight like traditional overshot water wheel .

Types of Impulse turbine: 

Types of Impulse turbine Turgo turbine: The Turgo turbine is an impulse water turbine designed for medium head applications. Operational Turgo Turbines achieve efficiencies of about 87 %. In factory and lab tests Turgo Turbines perform with efficiencies of up to 90%. It works with net heads between 15 and 300 m.

Types of Impulse turbine: 

Types of Impulse turbine Cross-flow turbine: Cross-flow turbines are often constructed as two turbines of different capacity that share the same shaft . The turbine wheels are the same diameter, but different lengths to handle different volumes at the same pressure.

Types of Impulse turbine: 

Types of Impulse turbine Jonval turbine: I n which water descends through fixed curved guide vanes which direct the flow sideways onto curved vanes on the runner . It is named after Feu Jonval , who invented it.

Types of Impulse turbine: 

Types of Impulse turbine Archimedes' screw: The Archimedes' screw, also called the Archimedean screw or screwpump , is a machine historically used for transferring water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation ditches.

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