ethics in advertisement

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Slide 1:

ETHICS IN ADVERTISING BY - NEERAJ ATTRI & SANDEEP OF BBA 5 th SEM

Ethics in Advertising and Promotion:

Ethics in Advertising and Promotion Not all issues can be regulated A marketing or promotion action may be legal but not ethical Marketers must decide the appropriateness of their actions Ethics: Moral principles and values that govern the actions and decisions of an individual or group .

Slide 3:

WHAT IS ETHICAL ? • The Golden Rule – Do unto others as you would have them do unto you • Professional Ethics – Would this be viewed as proper by a panel of ad professionals? • Personal Ethics – Would I be comfortable explaining this to my mother?

Advertising and Promotion Viewpoints:

Advertising and Promotion Viewpoints Creates unnecessary consumer needs and wants Promotes materialism, insecurity, and greed More propaganda (lies) than information Provides information Creates jobs Encourages higher standard of living Promotes competition (for) Proponent arguments (against) Critic arguments Helps new firms enter a market What is materialism?

Advertising and Children:

Advertising and Children Children's TV Watching Behavior Children ages 2-11 watch an average of 22 hours of TV per week and see 30,000 commercials per year 80% of all advertising targeted to children falls in four product categories: Toys, cereal, candy & fast food restaurants

Perspectives on Ads for Children:

Perspectives on Ads for Children Advocates Argue That Children: Marketers Argue Children: Lack the knowledge and skills to evaluate advertising claims Cannot differentiate between programs and commercials Must learn through socialization Must acquire skills needed to function in the marketplace

Slide 7:

Critiques of Advertising • Promotes consumerism • Creates unrealistic expectations / Encourages dissatisfaction • Manipulates people (applies knowledge of psychology) • Propagates stereotypes (gender, ethnic) • Includes offensive messages (sex, controversy, profanity) • Glamorizes unhealthy products (tobacco, alcohol, fatty food) • Targets vulnerable groups (children, uneducated) • Makes misleading claims (implies falsehoods without stating) • Presents meaningless product differences as meaningful CRITIQUES OF ADVERTISING

Slide 8:

FALSE ADVERTISING • Advertising that is simply untrue… • Illegal and completely unethical – Sony Pictures made up David Manning. Newsweek investigated and Sony’s marketing department admitted they made him up – Weight loss ads make “grossly exaggerated claims” – 40% made at least one claim that was almost certainly false, while 55% made a claim that was very likely false or lacked adequate substantiation

Slide 9:

PUFFERY • Positive, general claims that cannot be proved or disproved because they are a matter of opinion • Legal in most countries • “Advertising or other sales representations, which praise the item to be sold with subjective opinions, superlatives, or exaggerations, vaguely and generally, and stating no specific facts.” – Campbell’s Soup: America’s Favourite Food – Nothing outlasts the Energizer battery – Gillette: The best a man can get

Slide 10:

MISLEADING ADVERTISING • Advertising that does not literally contain falsehoods, but which causes consumers to make false inferences • Illegal if they are deemed/shown to produce inaccurate beliefs among a significant percentage of consumers (“ reasonable consumer” standard) • Strong risk of prosecution, penalties, remedial action • Examples – Strongly implied falsehoods – Critical missing information – Claim × knowledge interaction

Slide 11:

THE RISE OF STEALTH MARKETING Presenting a new product or service by cleverly creating and spreading “buzz” in an obtuse or surreptitious manner. Some examples… • Product placements: products placed within other conventional media forms, such as movies and music videos • Celebrity Marketing: Paying celebrity endorsements posing as unpaid testimonials • Viral Marketing: spreading the message via the Internet • Brand Pushing: hiring actors to approach unsuspecting people in real life situations and slipping commercial messages

Slide 12:

ADVERTISING ETHICS :SOME QUESTIONS Is it ethical to… • Conceal the fact that something is a paid commercial message (e.g. product placement)? • Conceal the fact that an individual has been paid to use or promote a product? (e.g. Seattle cell phone promo, chat room seeding) • Is offensive? • Fails to disclose that a product could be harmful? • Use an ad that portrays stereotypes? • Criticize a competitor’s product in your ad, even though you know it is basically the same as your own?

Slide 13:

QUESTIONS TO ASK Does the ad... • Make unsubstantiated claims? • Make false or misleading claims? • Make unfair comparisons? • Reinforce negative stereotypes? • Damage people’s self-image / create insecurities? • Target vulnerable groups? • Create false wants and false hope? • Manipulate people’s emotions? • Drive demand for unnecessary purchases? • Violate public standards of good taste?

Slide 14:

SOME WEBSITES • www.commercialexploitation.org • Media Awareness Network www.media-awareness.ca • Advertising Standards Canada www.adstandards.com • Canadian Advertising Research Foundation http://www.carf.ca/

Slide 15:

GUIDELINES FOR COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING 1. The intent should be to inform, not to discredit or attack competitors. Ads should emphasize the relative benefits of the featured product rather than the defects of rivals. 2. When a competitive product is named, it should be a significant competitor. For example, it would be unfair to state “costs 40% less than Brand X” when Brand X has an insignificant share, while other leading brands are comparably priced. 3. The competition should be fairly and properly identified, but never in a manner or tone of voice that degrades the competitive product or service. Products should also be shown in comparable background colour, setting, light. 4. Ads should compare similar properties of the product, feature to feature. Comparative advertising should not highlight only the superior attributes of the product to imply overall superiority

Slide 16:

GUIDELINES FOR COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING 5. If a competitive test is conducted, it should be done by an objective testing source, preferably an independent one. 6. The property being compared should be significant in terms of its value of the product to the consumer. For example, comparison of trivial ingredients, such as the salt used in the pickles served on a hamburger, should not be the subject of comparative comment. 7. Comparatives delivered through the use of personal testimonials should not imply that the testimonial is more than the experience of one individual unless that individual represents a sample of the majority viewpoint. 8. An advertiser cannot say through a third party testimonial what it knows to be untrue. (e.g., "I think this product is so much more effective than the leading brand".)

Economic Impact of Advertising:

Economic Impact of Advertising Effects on Consumer Choice Differentiation Brand Loyalty Effects on Product Costs and Prices Advertising as an expense that increases the cost of products Increased differentiation Effects on Competition Barriers to entry Economies of scale

Slide 18:

ADVERTISING REGULATION VARY It is important to know the legal situation in each country: • Advertising of jeans is prohibited in Malaysia (they are considered Western and decadent) • Direct marketing is banned in some European countries (it is considered an invasion of privacy) • A contest promotion might be legal in one country, but not in another

Advertising as Offensive or in Bad Taste:

Advertising as Offensive or in Bad Taste Sexual appeals Objectionable products Shock ads

Banned Dolce & Gabbana:

Banned Dolce & Gabbana It is basically a Italian brand of cloths. There is no fun of assaulting woman in this advertisement. It has a negative impact on small children's.

Banned Dolce & Gabbana:

Banned Dolce & Gabbana

Banned Dolce & Gabbana:

Banned Dolce & Gabbana Is there any need of showing violence ? Why the female used in the advertisement is without cloths ?

Objectionable Ads:

Objectionable Ads False claims to rebuild giant buildings . Suffering of people are used to make advertisement of own services and products.

Objectionable Ads:

Objectionable Ads In this advertisement a terrorist attack on world trade centre are used to highlight the problem of poverty. such kind of advertisements made by Mtv are objectioned as it affects the sentiments of people throughout world.

Objectionable Ads:

Objectionable Ads Although it is a advertisements to highlight the problem of hunger but as it affects the sentiments , it is banned.

Objectionable Ads:

Objectionable Ads

Objectionable Ads:

Objectionable Ads In this advertisement man die because of high current of battery. This is horror for children’s & have bad effect on the psycology .

Objectionable Ads:

Objectionable Ads There is need of being nude in this advertisement. Its has bad effect on the brain of children’s.

Objectionable Ads:

Objectionable Ads It is against law because hurting animals is against law of India.

Objectionable Ads:

Objectionable Ads This is a advertisement of footwear . Killing a man is not required . This advertisement have a double meaning.

Objectionable Ads:

Objectionable Ads This is a advertisement of TIGER bear .

Objectionable Ads:

Objectionable Ads This is a advertisement of cigarette. It promotes bad habit of smoking. What do mean by “spread a little happiness”? It create an illusion in the mind of people that cigarette smoking gives happiness.

Sex Sells… Should it?:

Sex Sells… Should it? Why advertisers use sex as a medium to increase sales of there products? females should not be used as dummies.

Sex Sells… Should it?:

Sex Sells… Should it? This is a advertisement of COFFEE. what is the fun of being nude in this advertisement. People cannot see such kind of advertisements in front of family. These kind of advertisements make a family difficult to watch t.v together.

Sex Sells… Should it?:

Sex Sells… Should it? This is an ad for toilet paper Why to be nude?

Objectionable Ads:

Objectionable Ads Does nudity in this ad help make a point? These kind of advertisements spoil mind of children’s. why to make use of it to increase the sale of products.

Test Your Knowledge:

Test Your Knowledge Advertisers are using shock advertising to: A ) Test their First Amendment rights B) Get ads noticed in the midst of clutter C) Make a statement against self-regulation D) Test the ethics of the advertising industry E) Act as advocacy ads for company management

Social and Cultural Consequences:

Social and Cultural Consequences Does advertising encourage materialism ? Does advertising make people buy things they don’t need? Is advertising just a reflection of society?

Advertising and Stereotyping:

Advertising and Stereotyping Portrayal of women to reflect their changing role in society Portrayal of women as sex objects Ethnic stereotyping/ representation Gender stereotyping Sexual orientation Criticisms of Advertising With Regard to Stereotyping

What is your opinion of this ad?:

What is your opinion of this ad? Is this woman portrayed as a sex object? Does this ad contain cues that are sexually suggestive? Does this ad present an image of sexual submissiveness?

Do TV Networks Have a Double Standard?:

Do TV Networks Have a Double Standard ?

Slide 42:

DO TV NETWORKS HAVE DOUBLE STANDARDS ?

How women are portrayed in advertising:

How women are portrayed in advertising

Dove Challenges the Norms of Beauty:

Dove Challenges the Norms of Beauty

Test Your Knowledge:

Test Your Knowledge Groups such as the National Organization for Women (NOW) are critical of advertising that: A) Portrays women in traditional sexist roles B) Contributes to violence against women C) Is insulting to women D) Stereotypes women E) Does any of the above

Subliminal Advertising:

Subliminal Advertising Subliminal- To reveal a message without a person knowing or being aware

Subliminal Advertising:

Subliminal Advertising

Subliminal Advertising:

Subliminal Advertising

Subliminal Advertising:

Subliminal Advertising We’re just as excited as you are

Subliminal Advertising:

Subliminal Advertising

Do Advertisers Control the Media?:

Do Advertisers Control the Media? Advertising is the primary source of revenue for newspapers, magazines, television and radio Advertisers may exert control over the media by biasing editorial content, limiting coverage of certain issues, or influencing program content Media’s dependence on advertising for revenue makes them vulnerable to control by advertisers

Slide 52:

ADVERTISING CAN ADRESS SOCIAL PROBLEMS

U.S. Government Discourages Drug Use:

U.S . Government Discourages Drug Use

Advertising Can Address Social Problems:

Advertising Can Address Social Problems

Slide 55:

PROMOTING RESPONSIBLE DRINKING

Role of Advertising in the Economy:

Role of Advertising in the Economy Makes consumers aware of products and services Provides consumers with information to use to make purchase decisions Encourages consumption, fosters economic growth

Slide 57:

ADVERTISING SELF-REGULATION Self-discipline • In-house review procedures within agencies • Includes vetting by legal team to ensure claims are verifiable and unlikely to mislead Industry self-regulation • In the U.S., the National Advertising Review Council (a joint venture of the BBB and local advertiser associations) negotiates voluntary withdrawal of ads deemed to be deceptive

Slide 58:

CONCLUSION Advertisers should make advertisements keeping in mind the ethics of advertisements .They must keep in mind that society is influenced by there advertisements ,so it is there responsibility to make responsible ads which a family can watch by sitting together. Advertisements has great impact on the mind of children's so, its should me made in such a way that it should increase there innovativeness & not to spoil there life by diverting there attention.

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