Category: Education

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It's my dissertation in Master in 2013.


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CUNG KHIN DIM 555100011-3:



Advisers Advisor Associate Professor Dr. Pennee Narrot Co-advisor Associate Professor Dr. Suwaree Sivabaedya


INTRODUCTION The literacy rate of Burma, according the UNESCO Institute of Statistics (2005) stands at 89.7% (males: 93.7%, females: 86.2%). The annual budget allocated to education by the government is low; only about 1.2% is spent per year on education. ( , accessed on Oct. 22, 2012)

Schools in Myanmar:

Schools in Myanmar


INTRODUCTION Cont. The infant mortality rate is high compared to the rest of south-east Asia. Malnutrition is also high amongst children under five. There is a huge need for health education and preventative measures such as better sanitation as well as accessible health clinics . ( (accessed on Oct. 22, 2012).

Health Education in Myanmar:

Health Education in Myanmar


INTRODUCTION Cont. Government funding for education is extremely low . Schools are few and far between in many poor areas. Two thirds of school age children fail to complete primary education as many drop out, often because parents cannot afford the fees. Without basic literacy or job skills, the poverty cycle passes down to the next generation . (accessed on March 18 th , 2013)

Educational Development in Myanmar:

Educational Development in Myanmar

Study Area:

Study Area Hlaingtharyar is the most developed of the new satellite towns founded in the 1980s. Hlaingthaya Industrial Zone , consisting of mostly garment and other light industries , is one of the largest industrial parks in the country. After Cyclone Nargis the township experienced a jump in population due to refugees . (Wikipedia/ Hlaingtharyar , accessed on Dec. 15, 2013)



Open Teaching:

Open Teaching

Statement of problem:

Statement of problem In the target place, the people’s social, economic, educational, health and political conditions were the lowest when compared to other people in Yangon, Myanmar. (Interview with the head of the Ward on Jan, 26, 2012)

Nursery Kids in Exodus School:

Nursery Kids in Exodus School

Statement of problem Cont.:

Statement of problem Cont. Although there was low cost education and free school education, the school enrollment and other associated fees such as stationary and uniforms are expensive. The pass rate was very low . Often the children had to go to work to help earn money for their family. (One of the volunteer-teachers, ENO, interviewed in Feb, 2012)

Teachers and Students:

Teachers and Students

Research Questions:

Research Questions How did the local level organizations intervene to promote the school enrollment of the underprivileged children? What were the impacts of the underprivileged children education support project? How could local level organizations survive with very limited funding source ?

The Kids in Child Care Home:

The Kids in Child Care Home


Objectives To analyze the role of local level organizations project intervention to promote the school enrollment of the underprivileged children . To examine the impact of the underprivileged children educational support project. To study how local level organizations can survive with very limited funding source .

Teachers Training for Volunteer-teachers:

Teachers Training for Volunteer-teachers

Scope and Limitations:

Scope and Limitations The field study was held in May, 2013 . The study area, Ward 20, Part, 6, Hlaingtharyar Township, Yangon City, Yangon Division, Myanmar, was purposively selected . The limitation of education level would be from Nursery to high school . The focus was local level organizational activities through interviews with teachers, parents, students, NGO members and local leaders.

Face-to-Face Teaching:

Face-to-Face Teaching

Expected Outcome of The Study:

Expected Outcome of The Study The documents and information was collected from the study area , Ward 20, Part 6, Hlaingtharyar , Yangon, Myanmar and presented a general picture of educational development for the underprivileged children by local level organizations, primarily Exodus Non-profit organization . Therefore, this study could demonstrate attitude, perceptions and needs related to education . Moreover, this study would be the first research and independent study for that area.

Granting Support for the next School Year:

Granting Support for the next School Year


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Qualitative research methodology and descriptive Mainly based on primary data One-by-one interview and discussions with respondents The unit of this study - the parents, children and teachers of the schools “Purposive sampling method’ The sample size of the study - calculated as 35 out of 2643 people Questionnaire Administration Group Discussion

Group Discussion:

Group Discussion


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY cont. Data Collection Semi structural interview guidelines as well as a short questionnaire Data Analysis Being essentially qualitative , the study will mainly use descriptive methods to analyze and discuss the research findings. Data collected from the above mentioned Ward and population will be carefully checked . The analysis of the data will be done simply by using computer .

Parents Participation :

Parents Participation


RESEARCH FINDINGS The main programs of ENO interventions are Child Care Home, Nursery School, Tuition, Community Development training & Workshop. ENO has number of programs that affect the children in Hlaingtharyar . Between 2010 and 2012, it was observed that the quality of children being helped in Exodus was growing . The Exodus is the only one organization which is doing educational development in the study area . (Interviewed to the local leader in May, 2013)

Trip for Training:

Trip for Training


RESEARCH FINDINGS Cont. The total population of the Ward is 2643 . The people are very poor and most of them are landless and illiterate . The people who finished primary education would be 50%, secondary 30 % and University 20%. However the majority of the parents now a day has found to send their children to school. There were small houses that were built temporarily and stayed many people illegally along the road. They opened some shops such as snacks shop, car repairing workshop, traditional food shop in very tiny space. (Interviewed to the local leader in May, 2013)

Experiential Learning:

Experiential Learning

General Characteristics of respondent students:

General Characteristics of respondent students Among the students, some of them were orphans ; some were motherless or fatherless, and some of them had parents but the parents could not afford their children’s education, so the students were sent to Child Care Home to study in Exodus school for their education. between 9 to 17 years old, more females , , 3 of them were primary school students, 6 of them were middle school students and 6 were high school students

General characteristics of respondent Parents:

General characteristics of respondent Parents The youngest one was 33 years old and the oldest one was 68 years old All the respondent parents were female parents or mothers/grandmother 4 of them finished their primary studies and only one could reach to the secondary school Housewives They don’t have their own income

Impact of Education Support:

Impact of Education Support Impact of schooling support interventions referred to improving educational opportunities and success for the children in Child Care Home and the students from the neighboring houses. The program implemented by Exodus was affected for augmenting of child number. Total number of teacher before the program was only 2 female teachers but after the program increasing on the teacher number up to 10 with 4 male and 6 female teachers. Before the project implemented, there were only 1 hall and 1 class room , totally 2 class rooms that was not sufficient for study. Now there were six class rooms that helped for high-quality education.

Teachers, Parent & Students +++:

Teachers, Parent & Students +++

The infrastructure of school:

The infrastructure of school The improvement of the school facilities after the project Clean water traditional tap filter ( Myay - yay -sit-oh), cemented drainage, compound wall with main gate Endowment of playing ground and playing things The students of this school used local mats had taken by themselves from the home before the project but after the program the local mats were displaced by bench desk donated by Lei-way Wood Industry to the Exodus school. The support for improvement of school facilities interventions was found very effective for the students in the school.

Quality Education and Teaching methods:

Quality Education and Teaching methods Irregular of students The parents, school management committee had become active , and self-motivated The entire teachers maintained their teaching behavior and learning communication methods to students that meant psychological type of education. After the program, as the number of full-time teachers increased and became to have satisfactory communication between students and teachers including between the teachers as well.



Funding Source:

Funding Source Indigenous Knowledge for in-kind contributions and income generation products : home-made grape wine, liquid soap, and traditional jewelry including ear-rings, rings, purses, bracelets, phone chains and key chains. They also produced music CDs, VCD and locally published books. And then they had domestic raising livestock for fund such as pigs and goats.

Exodus Products:

Exodus Products

Survival with limited Funding Source:

Survival with limited Funding Source The in-kind contributions that are from IK products were less than the expenses for all activities that ENO has. The products could be able to display and for sale to the customers who loved IK or hand-made accessories. A tool for survival and for in-kind contributions from who wanted to make charity to the people who are in need.

Hand-weaving for Fundraising:

Hand-weaving for Fundraising


DISCUSSION The children were being forced to engage themselves in hard laborious work . As they were surviving for their daily life, the need of their daily life was to have money . This might come abusing child rights, lack of “ Respect for Human Rights.” ENO had been running these kind programs in Hlaingtharyar Ward 20, Part 6 with Shwechinmae Development Preschool and Local authority officers . (Exodus report, 2012)


Recommendation Concern authority for active consideration in future planning and implementation on the education program especially to address unprivileged children in the study area Should be more teachers , a need of providing income generation opportunity , should be multi-level program, local and small media , assisting from the Ministry of Education , regular supervision , daily project, the internal challenges

Training in Shane State:

Training in Shane State


Suggestions In order to understand the impact of project interventions and the real situation, the study should be conducted at different level and sectors as well. Then this study was only the program support interventions for the unprivileged children through Exodus Non-profit Organization (ENO) excluding government school. Then ENO had a future plan to have private primary school , so there should be a research like this in the future.

Curriculum Vitae:

Curriculum Vitae Name Cung Khin Dim Date of Birth 1 st August 1985 Educational Background Bachelor of Arts in the major of English (2005), Dagon University Bachelor of Arts in the major of Theology (2007), Myanmar Center for Theological Studies (MCTS)

Child Care Home:

Child Care Home

Jewelry Making:

Jewelry Making

Exodus Non-profit Organization Brochure (2013):

Exodus Non-profit Organization Brochure (2013)

Summer School Graduation in May, 2013:

Summer School Graduation in May, 2013

Presentation an article (part of IS) in International Conference:

Presentation an article (part of IS) in International Conference

Thank You:

Thank You Q & A

MRDM 2012:

MRDM 2012

My Inspiration, My Family:

My Inspiration, My Family

Rody, MRDM student:

Rody , MRDM student

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