Weathering and Erosion

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NEXT Notes on Handout The handout is available on Benson ’ s Web site @ www.formontana.net/benson.html Select “ Unit 7 ” and then NOTES: Weathering/Erosion

Three “external processes”? :

Three “ external processes ” ? Weathering Erosion Mass wasting EROSION What word is used to encompass all three?

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Where did the rock material go?

2. Difference between weathering and erosion?:

2. Difference between weathering and erosion? Weathering causes rock to disintegrate . Breaks rock down Breaks rock apart Erosion carries rock material away . Water, glaciers, wind, etc.

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Chemical or Mechanical? Both!

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How does water contribute to this chemical weathering?

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2005 First ever steam/pressure-washing

Frost wedging:

Frost wedging Talus slope . . . a.k.a.?

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NEXT: lab photos

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7.8 - 7.3 = .5 7.3 .5 .07 7 % expansion 4

Where is a famous place where we don’t want frost wedging to happen?:

Where is a famous place where we don ’ t want frost wedging to happen?

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batholith

How would your prevent frost-wedging.:

How would your prevent frost-wedging.

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Calking the cracks

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17 miles from Mt. Rushmore

How does mechanical weathering speed up chemical weathering?:

How does mechanical weathering speed up chemical weathering? 3.

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It increases the surface area . Why the rounded look?

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Mechanical or chemical?

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SHEET JOINTING (exfoliation) This happens because of the removal of rocks above causes expansion. (release of pressure)

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So, why do they call it “ weathering ” ?

4. Besides surface area, what two other factors . . . . ?:

4. Besides surface area, what two other factors . . . . ?

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Rock type Climate Which direction would you want your headstone to face in Helena?

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5. What is produced as granite weathers ?

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Answer to #5: Sand and Clay

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Where did the sand and clay go?

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6. Differential weathering?

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Magma (dike) Magma (laccolith)

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Magma moved through the dike into the laccolith. Laccolith Sedimentary (yellow) layers are domed upward. The magma hardens . Surface of the land The Cliffs of Crown Butte Over millions of years, the rock over and around the laccolith is eroded away.

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Some types of rock are tougher; they weather at different rates

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What forms if you have weathering, but not erosion?

7. What is soil made of?:

7. What is soil made of? 45% rock material 5% organic material 25% water 25% air (sand, silt, clay, gravel) (dead stuff)

8. The 4 most important factors that control soil formation?:

8. The 4 most important factors that control soil formation? Type of rock Amount of Time Type of Climate Slope

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Residual soil, or transported soil?

9. How is the rock material in a transported soil different from rock material in a residual soil?:

9. How is the rock material in a transported soil different from rock material in a residual soil? The material in a residual soil came from the rock that the soil sits upon.

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10. Mass Wasting? What would they call it on the news? a.k.a. Landslides

Answer to #10 . . . :

Answer to #10 . . . Movement of rock/soil downslope due to . . . GRAVITY

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11. Four types . . . Slump

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Rockslide Tennessee Rockslide

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Madison Canyon Landslide 1959

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Debris Flow Debris?

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Landslide onto Sherman Glacier 1964 Debris Flow

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Debris Flow

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Debris?

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Earth Flow

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12. Controls and triggers?

12. The triggers are . . . :

12. The triggers are . . . Water Fire Steep slopes Earthquakes

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Gros Ventre Landslide in Wyoming 1925 Slump? Rockslide? Debris Flow? Earth Flow?

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A B C D 13-16 Answer to #13: Badlands

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