drug delivery

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Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals Drug release is from: diffusion, degradation, swelling, and affinity-based mechanisms Most common routes of administration include the preferred non-invasive peroral (through the mouth), topical (skin), transmucosal ( nasal , buccal / sublingual , vaginal , ocular and rectal ) and inhalation routes

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Many medications such as peptide and protein , antibody , vaccine and gene based drugs, in general may not be delivered using these routes because they might be susceptible to enzymatic degradation or can not be absorbed into the systemic circulation efficiently due to molecular size and charge issues to be therapeutically effective. For this reason many protein and peptide drugs have to be delivered by injection or a nanoneedle array. For example, many immunizations are based on the delivery of protein drugs and are often done by injection.

Methods of Drug Delivery:

Methods of Drug Delivery 4

PowerPoint Presentation:

Current efforts in the area of drug delivery include the development of targeted delivery in which the drug is only active in the target area of the body (for example, in cancerous tissues)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Targeted drug delivery , sometimes called smart drug delivery , [1] is a method of delivering medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration of the medication in some parts of the body relative to others. When implementing a targeted release system, the following design criteria for the system need to taken into account: the drug properties, side effects of the drugs, the route taken for the delivery of the drug, the targeted site, and the disease.

Targeted Drug Delivery:

Targeted Drug Delivery 7

Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery:

Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Metal-based nanoparticles Lipid-based nanoparticles Polymer-based nanoparticles Biological nanoparticles

Drug delivery carriers:

Drug delivery carriers Liposomes Neosomes Dendrimers Micelle Carbon60 Carbon nanotube


liposomes Their exterior lipid bilayer is very chemically reactive, thereby providing a means to conveniently couple “tags” on a covalent basis. Such “tags” can be antibodies, antigens, cell receptors, nucleic acid probes, etc. With  diameters ranging in size from approximately 50 nm to 800 nm, their aqueous core encapsulates up to millions of molecules of signal generating “markers” that can be detected in a variety of different way. A variety of different encapsulants are possible including visually detectable dyes (since the lipid bilayer is transparent), optically and fluorometrically detectable dyes, enzymes, and electroactive compounds. This provides significant versatility in the detection schemes possible.

Liposome's :

Liposome's 11 Dept. of Pharmaceutics


Niosomes Niosomes, non-ionic surfactant vesicles, are widely studied as an alternative to liposomes These vesicles appear to be similar to liposomes in terms of their physical properties Niosomes alleviate the disadvantages associated with liposomes, such as chemical instability, variable purity of phospholipids and high cost. They have the potential for controlled and targated drug delivery Niosomes enhanced the penetration of drugs




Micelle Micelle is an aggregate of amphipathic molecules in water, with the nonpolar portions in the interior and the polar portions at the exterior surface, exposed to water. Amphiphilic molecules form micelle above a particular concentration which is called as critical micellar concentration (CMC). Micelles are known to have an anisotropic water distribution within their structure, means  water concentration decreases from the surface towards the core of the micelle, with a completely hydrophobic (water-excluded) core. Hydrophobic drugs can be encapsulated/solubalized, into inner core. The spatial position of a solubilized drug in a micelle will depend on its polarity, nonpolar molecules will be solubilized in the micellar core, and substances with intermediate polarity will be distributed along the surfactant molecules in certain intermediate positions.

Micelle :

Micelle 15 Dept. of Pharmaceutics


Dendrimers These branched macromolecules are constructed around a simple core unit. Dendrimers have a high degree of molecular uniformity, narrow molecular weight distribution, specific size and shape characteristics, and a highly- functionalized terminal surface. The manufacturing process is a series of repetitive steps starting with a central initiator core. Each subsequent growth step represents a new "generation" of polymer with a larger molecular diameter, twice the number of reactive surface sites, and approximately double the molecular weight of the preceding generation.

Dendrimers :

Dendrimers 17 Dept. of Pharmaceutics

Carbon 60 :

Carbon 60 C60 are spherical molecules about 1nm in diameter, comprising 60 carbon atoms arranged as 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons: the configuration of a football. Hence they find application as NanoPharmaceuticals with large drug payload in their cage like structure. On the other hand with development of various chemical substitutes for C60, it is possible to develop functionalized C60 with better drug targeting properties

Carbon 60:

Carbon 60 19 Dept. of Pharmaceutics

Carbon Nanotube:

Carbon Nanotube Carbon nanotubes are adept at entering the nuclei of cells and may one day be used to deliver drugs and vaccines. The modified nanotubes have so far only been used to ferry a small peptide into the nuclei of fibroblast cells. But the researchers are hopeful that the technique may one day form the basis for new anti-cancer treatments, gene therapies and vaccines.

Carbon Nanotube:

Carbon Nanotube

Applications of Nanotechnology:

Applications of Nanotechnology 22

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