The Preterite

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The Preterite Tense

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5A – El pretérito : 

5A – El pretérito The preterite review

The preterite is used to express simple past actions completed at a defined time in the past. : 

The preterite is used to express simple past actions completed at a defined time in the past.

-ar verbs : 

-ar verbs Endings for -ar verbs -é -amos -aste -asteis -ó -aron These endings are added to most -ar verbs. Endings for -ar verbs -é -amos -aste -asteis -ó -aron These endings are added to most -ar verbs.

lavar – to wash : 

lavar – to wash lavé lavaste lavó lavamos lavasteis lavaron * Accents Yo ________ la ropa. Yo lavé la ropa.

Translation into Englishlavar – to wash : 

Translation into Englishlavar – to wash lavé I washed lavaste you washed lavó he,she,you washed lavamos we washed lavasteis you washed lavaron they, you washed

The –car, -gar, -zar verbsIrregulars of -ar verbs : 

-ar verbs ending in –car, -gar, -zar have an irregularity It affects the first person singular only. Reason: In Spanish the letter c and g are soft in front of an e. A hard pronunciation is needed. Also, the letter z does not exist in front of an e in Spanish. The –car, -gar, -zar verbsIrregulars of -ar verbs

therefore….The irregularity in the “yo” form is: : 

therefore….The irregularity in the “yo” form is: For –car verbs the ending would be -qué. Example: tocar – toqué (not tocé) For –gar verbs the ending would be -gué. Example: jugar – jugué (not jugé) For –zar verbs the ending would be -cé. Example: empezar-empecé (not empezé)

tocar – to play : 

tocar – to play toqué tocaste tocó tocamos tocasteis tocaron Yo __________ la guitarra y Juan la __________ también. Yo toqué la guitarra y Juan la tocó también.

apagar – to turn off : 

apagar – to turn off apagué apagaste apagó apagamos apagasteis apagaron Vosotros ________ las luces en el baño y yo ________ la luz en la cocina. Vosotros apagasteis las luces en el baño y yo apagué la luz en la cocina.

empezar – to begin : 

empezar – to begin empecé empezaste empezó empezamos empezasteis empezaron Leana y Diego ________ la lección pero yo no la _________. Leana y Diego empezaron la lección pero yo no la empecé.

-er verbs : 

-er verbs Endings for –er verbs -í -iste -ió -imos -isteis -ieron These endings are added to most –er verbs.

correr – to run : 

correr – to run corrí corriste corrió corrimos corristeis corrieron ¿Quién corrió a la fiesta? Who ran to the party? All of the endings begin with the letter “i” í imos iste isteis ió ieron

-ir verbs : 

-ir verbs Endings for –ir verbs -í -iste -ió -imos -isteis -ieron These endings are added to most –ir verbs

escribir – to write : 

escribir – to write escribí escribiste escribió escribimos escribisteis escribieron Yo escribí en español. I wrote in Spanish The endings are the same as –er verbs í imos iste isteis ió ieron

Present tense –ir stem-changers (boot verbs) also have a stem-change in the preterite tense. : 

Present tense –ir stem-changers (boot verbs) also have a stem-change in the preterite tense. The change is a little different. In the preterite they are called the “Sandal Verbs”

dormir(ue,u) – to sleep : 

dormir(ue,u) – to sleep dormí dormiste durmió dormimos dormisteis durmieron Ella no durmió bien anoche. She did not sleep well last night. The “o” changes to “u” in the 3rd persons only.

When you look up stem-changing verbs in the dictionary, for example: : 

When you look up stem-changing verbs in the dictionary, for example: dormir (ue,u) present tense “boot” stem-change / preterite tense “sandal” stem-change

dormir (ue,u)The “ue” refers to the stem-change in the present tense. : 

dormir (ue,u)The “ue” refers to the stem-change in the present tense. duermo duermes duerme dormimos dormís duermen Remember the forms that have the stem-change in the present tense form the boot shape. These are the “boot verbs”. ¿Duermes mucho? Do you sleep a lot?

dormir (ue,u)The “u” refers to the stem-change in the preterite tense. : 

dormir (ue,u)The “u” refers to the stem-change in the preterite tense. dormí dormiste durmió dormimos dormisteis durmieron The forms that have the stem-change in the preterite tense form more of a “sandal” shape. These are the “sandal verbs”.

REMEMBER!! : 

REMEMBER!! Present Tense – Boot Verbs / Preterite Tense – Sandal Verbs dormir (ue, u) pedir (i, i) preferir (ie, i) mentir (ie, i) repetir (i, i) sentir (ie, i) preferir (ie, i) We have already learned the Boot Verbs when we learned the present tense. This lección, we are learning the Preterite Sandal Verbs.

pedir(i,i) – to request, ask for : 

pedir(i,i) – to request, ask for pedí pediste pidió pedimos pedisteis pidieron Ud. pidió la ensalada. You ordered the salad. The “e” changes to “i” in the 3rd persons only.

preferir (ie, i) – to prefer : 

preferir (ie, i) – to prefer preferí preferiste prefirió preferimos preferisteis prefirieron Uds. prefirieron español. You prefered Spanish. The “e” changes to “i” in the 3rd persons only.

Just follow the same pattern for any other –ir stem-changers you come upon. Just look for the second vowel after the infinitive: sentir(ie,i) : 

Just follow the same pattern for any other –ir stem-changers you come upon. Just look for the second vowel after the infinitive: sentir(ie,i) By the way, there are only –ir sandal verbs. -ar or –er verbs do not stem change in the preterite.

–er and –ir verbs-yó / -yeron verbs : 

–er and –ir verbs-yó / -yeron verbs

leer – to read : 

leer – to read leí leíste leyó leímos leísteis leyeron Leí seis libros para la clase de ingles. I read six books for English class. * “y” replaces the “i” in the 3rd persons. * leyeron is the only form without an accent.

oír – to hear : 

oír – to hear oí oíste oyó oímos oísteis oyeron ¿No oíste la fecha del examen? Didn’t you hear the date of the test? * “y” replaces the “i” in the 3rd persons. * oyeron is the only form without an accent.

The irregular preterite verbs : 

The irregular preterite verbs

estar – to be : 

estar – to be estuve estuviste estuvo estuvimos estuvisteis estuvieron Estuve en casa ayer. I was at home yesterday. * This verb contains “uv” * There are no accents.

tener – to have : 

tener – to have tuve tuviste tuvo tuvimos tuvisteis tuvieron Tuve que trabajar ayer. I had to work yesterday. * This verb contains “uv” similiar to the preterite conjugation of estar: estuve, estuviste, etc. * There are no accents.

decir – to say, tell : 

decir – to say, tell dije dijiste dijo dijimos dijisteis dijeron Mis padres dijeron que no. My parents said no. * The “c” is replaced by a “j”. * The 3rd person form is –eron. * There are no accents.

hacer – to do, make : 

hacer – to do, make hice hiciste hizo hicimos hicisteis hicieron Juan no hizo su tarea. Juan didn’t do his homework. * The “c” is replaced by a “z” in the 3rd person singular form to maintain the soft pronunciation. * There are no accents.

dar and ver – the irregular “fraternal twins” : 

dar and ver – the irregular “fraternal twins” dar di diste dio dimos disteis dieron ver vi viste vio vimos visteis viereon No accents

ir and ser – the irregular “identical twins” : 

ir and ser – the irregular “identical twins” 1. Yo fui (I went, was) __________________________ 2. Tú fuiste (you went,were) __________________________ 3. Él fue (he went, was) Ella fue (she went, was) Ud. fue (you went, polite were) fue (it is) “it” was implied 1. Nosotros fuimos (we went,were) Nosotras fuimos (we went, were fem.) ___________________________ 2. Vosotros fuisteis (you went, were) Vosotras fuisteis (you went, were fem.) ___________________________ 3. Ellos fueron (they went, were) Ellas fueron (they went, were fem.) Uds. fueron (you went, were plural)

Perfecto. Gracias clase. : 

Perfecto. Gracias clase.

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