Veterinary dosage forms

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INTRODUCTION Animal health past few years become more essential for the following reasons According to Animal Health Institute, domestic sales survey 4.32 billion dollars priced. Zoonosis – the diseases of animals may secondarily transferred to humans. In 1960 and 1970 two pharmacy colleges offered the courses in agricultural pharmacy and veterinary therapeutics University of Iowa college of pharmacy South Dakota university

Dosage forms:

Dosage forms There are many similarities and differences in the anatomy and physiology of mammals, birds and humans Tablets and boluses: These are less popular for animals because of their administration may be time consuming, hazardous, uncertain in tablet swallowing, and they may spit out or dropped from the mouth. This can be overcome by use of acceptable odors, flavors, sweeteners.

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Drugs are given on the basis of weight or body surface area The labeling of solid dosage forms, must be stated in mg or g per kg of body weight A special tablet BOLUSE is commonly used to provide the large doses, it can range from 3 to 16 gm in weight Boluses are capsule shaped or cylindrical Boluses are administered by an apparatus called balling gun, consisting of a barrel with a plunger that can hold one or more boluses The tube inserted in to the animal mouth over the base of tongue and such animal swallows the plunger is depressed. The bolus is expelled in to the gullet of animal, after it swallowed by reflex

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Bolus formulation poses challenges because of the high to excipients ratio Less room left for diluents, binders and other additives Cattle or sheep, possible to utilize the concept of long acting boluses, which stays in GIT more than 12 hrs. The density is the critical factor to maintain the retention Feed additives Feed additive premix (type A) are formulated to contain bulk drug and excipient in a form that may ready combine with an animal feed The feed route is using for mainly prophylactic purpose and growth promotion of animal . The most of the premixes contains grain carrier Rice hulls Corn germ meal Corn meal Corn gulletin In which active drug is lightly bound or absorbed on the surface, the carrier functions by absorbing the small particles of drug on the surface, The carrier usually be two thirds or more in concentration .

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An oil may be added to bind the drug and the carrier To prevent caking , an anti caking agent such as silicon dioxide or magnesium aluminium silicate can be incorporated factor considered in formulation Drug concentration Moisture content of drug and carrier Electrostatic charges pH Flow of powders

Drinking water medications :

Drinking water medications The medications formulated as Dry powders for reconstitution Concentrated solutions Unhealthy animals allow to drink water continuosly . Water as medium for drug solubility and qick absorption. Concentration of drug in water to be half only, this problem may overcome by its limited solubility. The powder medication is dissolved at the time of administration in to water to make a stock solution

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In addition, the dry powders are usually formulated with sugar as lactose or dextrose. The use of these may cause a build-up of bacteria and fungi in water lines The drug stability in water must be stated in label

Oral pastes and gels:

Oral pastes and gels Semi fluid masses can be administered from a flexible tube, syringe or using device Advantage of these are cannot be expelled out animal mouth. Medication may be readily and easily with a paste. A proper consistency to adheres to the tongue or buccal cavity. Characteristics of pastes when placed in palm and hand is inverted it should remain without falling When ejected fro applicator, should break cleanly No paste should continue to ooze from applicator Free from air bubbles

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Three types of vehicles used in formulation of paste and gels are Aqueous bases Oil or oleaginous bases Organic solvents Aqueous base is the least expensive vehicle and poses no toxicity Glycerin, glycols, natural or synthetic gums, polymers used to increase the viscosity, cohesiveness and plasticity To overcome the separation of water gel, can use absorbing materials like MCC, kaolin, colloidal silicone dioxide, starch

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Oleaginous bases consists of vegetable oil with aluminum monostearate, colloidal silica, and xanthan gum Glycerin , propylene glycol and poly ethylene glycol thicked with carboxy vinyl polymers provide organic bases

Drenches and tubing products :

Drenches and tubing products Horses are administered certain medications by running lubricated tube up through the nostrils and down in to stomach A funnel attached to the tube is held above the horses head and liquid medication is poured down the tube. Known as tubing Normal dose by this method is 10 OZ Wetting agents are used to increase the flow rate. Thicking and suspending agents are contraindicated to resist the flow The administration of drug to animals by pouring a liquid medication down an animal throat is called “drenching”

Topical dosage forms:

Topical dosage forms Four types of topical dosage forms are Pour on /spot on applications Dust bags Dips Flea and tick collars Pour on/spot on applications These are the liquid products effect systemic activity after being poured on to animal backline or applied as one spot concentrate on the animal back Spot on s mainly used for grubs and lice Eg : levimisole , broad spectrum anti helminthic activity These formulation contains organiophosphorus insecticides or antihelminthic dissolved in organic solvents as DMSO or aromatic hydrocarbons The advantages of these formulations are Elimination of risk of trauma and damage at injection site No special skills are required for application Sterile preparations are not necessary Troublesome animals are dosed easily Speed of treatment is quick

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Dust bags Cattle are treated with insecticide powders through use of a device called a dust bag. Dosing accomplished by animals brushing against the bag as they walk beside or under it This bag has an inner porous storage bag containing the insecticide dust formulation Forced –use bags are hung in door ways or tree or pole DIPS For control of ectoparasites in economic animals, dipping is an extensively used method A dip formulation containing the drug is diluted in a large dipping bath through which the animal is driven This bath must be long, wide, and deep enough to cause immersion of the animal It must be non toxic to the animal but toxic to ectoparasites

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Flea and tick collars This dosage form is most familiar companion animals like dogs and cats There are two types of flea and tick collars Vaporous Powder producing collars Both containing the insecticide and a plasticized solid thermoplastic resin Vaporous collar contains relatively high vapor pressure liquid pesticide mixed throughout the collar The pesticide is slowly released and fills the atmosphere adjacent to the animal , that kills the pest but innocuous to the animal The powder producing collar contain a solid solution of the drug in the resin Shortly after the collar is processed the particles migrate from within the body of resin and form a coating of particles known as bloom

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Ticks and fleas migrate through the neck area of the animal as they contact the active pesticide is released and kills the pest Miscellaneous dosage forms Pharmacists are responsible to compounding of ear preparations for pets that are not commercially available Nebuliozers and aerosols are starting to be used in small animals Percutaneous patches are used in small animals Eg ; fentanyl

Over the counter drugs:

Over the counter drugs Some OTC drugs used in small animals but in others should not be used, Due to the differences in absorption , receptor types, metabolism and other in digestive system and dosage than in human Anti inflammatories are used cautiously in dogs and cats Eg ; aspirin Acetaminophen and ibuprofen are two OTC drugs highly toxic to small animals, cause blood dyscrasias Anti histamines are widely used in small animals to control allergies reactions Eg : diphenhydramine Anti diarrheal are used in dogs. Creams and lotions may be used in animals , although they can be licked off.


U.S. REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS FOR ANIMAL DRUGS The center for veterinary medicine of the Food and drug administration has the responsibility for review and approval of animal drugs The mechanism for review and approval of animal drugs is through the submission of Form 356( NADA) new animal drug application Animal feeds containing drugs must also be approved by submission of Form FD 1900, animal feed application

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Before approval of new animal drug application , the center for veterinary medicine may require a manufacturing facilities visit called a preapproval inspection The GMP regulations are used as a guide for this audit by inspectors from the compliance division of FDA. The requirements for laboratory data, manufacturing equipment are same for drugs used in humans or animals

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Some of the drugs can not be used in animals, those are chloramphenicol , diethylstilbestrol and vancomycin . Labeling of veterinary drugs: Name and address of veterinarian Active ingredients Date dispensed and expire date Directions for use Cautionary statements Name and address of pharmacy / pharmacist dispensing the medication

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