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KNOW HOW – HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR Presented By : Lakshminarayanan.R

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Definition 3 - 4 History 5 - 6 Comparison with Human 7 Types - Chain & Wheel 8 Classification by Size 9 Application 10 - 11 Manufacturers 12 Major Parts 13 Work Equipment 14 - 15 Attachments 16 Upper Structure 17- 19 Lower Structure 20 - 26 Swing Mechanism 27 Swivel Joint 28 Excavator Specifications 29 - 33 Working Principle 34 - 46 Typical Hyd. Circuit – Excavator 47 How It Works 48 Movie 49 Table of Content

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Definition Hydraulic Excavator is the most commonly used construction machine. It has Bucket with specified volumetric capacity Hydraulic power is the key utility to operate them It can work above and under the ground level where it rest It can work at all gradient and difficult terrain & even under water excavation work With various front attachments, it can be used for diversified A Quick Coupler enables to change with different type attachments Hydraulic Excavator are fully controlled hydraulically which provides: Faster Cycle Time Less Noisy Smoothness & Ease of Operation High overall Efficiency Greater Accuracy & Precision

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History Early Hydraulic Shovels The earliest recorded hydraulic shovel appeared in 1882 and was produced by Sir W.G. Armstrong & Co., a British company. Another company to make an attempt was the Kilgore Machine Co. of Minneapolis in Minnesota, who patented the shovel in 1897. In 1948, a wheeled prototype of the excavator was developed by Carlo and Mario Bruneri. They gave up the patent and manufacture rights to a French company named SICAM in 1954, the same year SICAM built the Yumbo. The Yumbo, an S25 excavator, had a truck mounted on it. Wheelers and crawlers made their way into the picture as buyers became interested in the product. The Poclain Hydraulic Excavator One of the first hydraulic excavators, the TU, was produced in 1951 by Poclain in France. A departure from excavators which transmitted their digging power by the use of cables and winches, it employed a hydraulic pump and cylinders. The TU was unable to rotate a full 360 degrees of rotation. Poclain subsequently introduced the TY45, the first machine to fully revolve, in 1960. By the early 1970s the hydraulic excavator, with its easier operation and higher rate of production has largely replaced its predecessor—the cable excavator

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History The Gradall Tractor The Gradall tractor was invented by Ray and Koop Ferwerda of Cleveland, Ohio. Ferwerda is known for creating a telescoping-boom excavator that was unique for being mounted on a truck. The Ferwerda brothers, who moved from the Netherlands to the U.S., became partners in a highway contracting firm. Due to many men leaving the workforce for the war effort, the Ferwerda brothers were in need of a machine that could perform slope grading work. Their first design, a tractor-mounted excavator, had two beams that sat on a rotating platform and a telescopic cylinder that moved the beams forward and back, producing the excavation motion. Although not produced for commercial purposes until a later date, the hydraulic excavator, available in 15, 24, 36 and 60-inch bucket sizes, was launched in 1941. The success of this led to the production of three more between 1942 and 1944

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Comparison with Human

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Classification by Size

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Applications Hydraulic excavators offer much versatility. Buckets in these excavators can be removed and replaced with Backhoe Bucket, Loader Bucket, Bottom Dump Bucket, Clam Shell (for Loose Material) Multi Grapple, Crane Hook, Electro Magnet, Scissors, or even Crushing equipment & Rock Drills etc., It is this level of versatility that makes Hydraulic Excavators, so helpful in a large range of applications.

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Manufacturers World’s Leading Manufactures are Caterpillar, Komatsu, Terex Kobellco Hitachi Hyundai Volvo JCB etc., Indian Manufactures are, Bharat Earth Movers Limited, Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hindustan Motors Limited,

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Major Parts

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Work Equipment

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Work Equipment

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Upper Structure Holds the Engine / Electric Motor, the Hydraulic Pump, Hydraulic Tank, Valve Bank , Swing Motors & the Cab.

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Upper Structure

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Upper Structure

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Lower Structure Mechanisms that make the excavator move are comprised in here. There are hydraulic excavators containing either wheels for movement or others that have crawlers to move along the road, up a hill, or across a construction site. Under Carriage & Its Parts Final Drive Idler

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Lower Structure

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Lower Structure Crawler

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Lower Structure

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Lower Structure

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Lower Structure

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Lower Structure Wheel type excavator make use of Supports / Stablilizers during work.

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Swing Mechanism Outer race fixed at Upper structure turns with the “ Pinion” that spins along with the inner race fixed at the Lower Structure. The part between the Outer race & the Inner race turns smoothly on the Ball Bearings

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Swivel Joint Hydraulic Rotary Joints are used for conveying fluid under pressure from a stationary source to a to a rotating elements or Vice versa. Also referred to as Rotating Unions, Swivel Joints etc. Rotary joints are designed with sealing on the diameter or the rotating part, Specific seal designs are selected based on the operating conditions like rotating speed, operating pressure , nature of application etc.

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Excavator Specifications Machine (Make / Model / Serial No. / Overall Dimensions) Operating Weight (kN) with Operator, Cabin, with all standard Items & accessories. Engine (Make / Model / Serial No. / Type / No. of Cylinder / Stroke, Torque/ Speed etc.) Flywheel Power (kW) Undercarriage (Track Shoe size / Type / Roller No. / Track Length etc.,) Hydraulic System Swing Mechanism ( Speed / Torque) Drive System ( Travel Speed / Drawbar pull) Work Equipment ( Pressure / Cylinder size) Bucket (Model / Cubic Capacity) Performance Data (Working Range / Arm Force / Bucket Force)

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Working Range & Transportation

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Max. Digging Height

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Max. Dumping Height

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Max. Digging Depth

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Working Principle Work Equipment for Hydraulic Excavator is moved by Hydraulic Cylinder

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Cylinder - Retraction

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Cylinder - Extension

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Supply to move Cylinder

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Changing Direction of Oil flow to Control Valve

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Changing Direction of Oil flow to Control Valve

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Changing Direction of Oil flow to Control Valve

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When Both Cylinder Ports are Blocked

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Main Relief Valve Function When Oil Pressure Raises

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Safety Valve Function Abnormal Pressure

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Safety Valve Function Abnormal Pressure

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Entire Circuit

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Hydraulic Schematic Circuit

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How it Works?

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Movie – Excavator in Action

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