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2 DEFINE ANIMATION Definition: A collection of static images joined together and shown consecutively so that they appear to move. Animation is about storytelling by bringing things to life (making them move).


INTRODUCTION TO ANIMATION What kind of stories to tell? Scientific, Visualization, Entertainment, Fiction, Non-fiction. What is unique about animation? Unprecedented control! Anything can happen Total control over how things look Total control over how things move Animation process of creating images one at a time to be displayed rapidly in sequence giving the illusion of movement . Persistence of vision blending together by the eye and brain of rapidly displayed sequential images, giving the illusion of movement.

Usage of Animation : 

Usage of Animation Artistic purposes Storytelling Displaying data (scientific visualization) Instructional purposes

Basic Principles of Animation : 

Basic Principles of Animation TIMING The basics are: more drawings between poses slow and smooth the action. Fewer drawings make the action faster and crisper. A variety of slow and fast timing within a scene adds texture and interest to the movement. SECONDARY ACTION This action adds to and enriches the main action and adds more dimension to the character animation, supplementing and/or re-enforcing the main action.

Basic Principles of Animation : 

Basic Principles of Animation Straight Ahead Action and Pose-To-Pose Action Straight ahead animation starts at the first drawing and works drawing to drawing to the end of a scene. You can lose size, volume, and proportions with this method, but it does have spontaneity and freshness. Fast, wild action scenes are done this way. Pose to Pose is more planned out and charted with key drawings done at intervals throughout the scene. Size,volumes, and proportions are controlled in this way.

Basic Principles of Animation : 

Basic Principles of Animation Staging A pose or action should clearly communicate to the audience the attitude, mood, reaction or idea of the character as it relates to the story and continuity of the story line. The effective use of long, medium, or close up shots, as well as camera angles also helps in telling the story. ARCS All actions, with few exceptions (such as the animation of a mechanical device), follow an arc or slightly circular path. This is especially true of the human figure and the action of animals. Arcs give animation a more natural action and better flow.

Basic Principles of Animation : 

Basic Principles of Animation Solid Drawing The basic principles of drawing form, weight, volume solidity and the illusion of three dimension apply to animation as it does to academic drawing. Transform these into color and movement giving the characters the illusion of three-and four-dimensional life. Three dimensional is movement in space.

Basic Principles of Animation : 

Basic Principles of Animation Exaggeration Exaggeration is not extreme distortion of a drawing or extremely broad, violent action all the time. It’s like a caricature of facial features, expressions, poses, attitudes and actions. Exaggeration in a walk or an eye movement or even a head turn will give your animation more appeal.



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Stop motion: 1. Frame-by-frame 2. Physically manipulating real- world objects 3. Photographing one frame of film at a time 4. Clay figures Clay animation: 1. Clay or malleable material 2.An armature or wire frame

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Cutout animation: 1. Unique technique 2. Flat characters, props, backgrounds 3. Cut out from: paper, card, stiff fabric, photographs Object animation: 1. Non-drawn objects: toys, blocks, dolls 2. Not fully malleable 3. Not designed 4. Human or animal character 5. Combined with other forms

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PUPPET ANIMATION The moving of the puppets Armature inside of them Ongoing process In 1898 Albert. E. Smith and J. Stuart Black "The Humpty Dumpty Circus"

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2D animation: 1. 2D bitmap graphics 2. 2D vector graphics 3. Automated computerized versions: tweening, morphing, onion skinning, interpolated rotoscoping 3D animation: 1. Digital models manipulated by animator 2. Rigging 3. Various other techniques: mathematical functions, particle simulations, simulation with fur or hair, effects fire and water, motion capture

Creating Animation : 

Creating Animation 2 step process for creating animations Step 1: Planning Step 2: Implementation Step 1: Planning Decide on the problem to be solved Design a solution – storyboard Determine the characters and objects to appear on

Story Board Example : 

Story Board Example

Creating Animation : 

Creating Animation Step 2: Implementation Start production Post-production Test playback and review Amendments Delivery or packaging

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VOCABULARY Animation has it’s own special “language” The software Animation:Master also has it’s own computer shortcuts to make animation simpler and easier We will be spending a lot of time on vocabulary and computer shortcuts so you can become an animation expert!

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ELEMENTS OF ANIMATION Character design Script writing Storyboarding Dialog recording – dialog is recorded first, so the animator can match the voice to the lips What is the story all about? What will it look like when it’s done? What does the character look like? What will the character act out? Will there be interaction with other characters?

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Career Prospects

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The Indian animation industry is currently at US $500 million and is expected to reach US $1.5 billion by the year 2009. Yet, statistics reveal not even half of the manpower requirement in the animation industry is being fulfilled in India. NASSCOM says that India's gaming industry (computer games and mobile games) is expected to generate $424 million by the 2010. NASSCOM has projected a creation of an additional 300,000 jobs in this sector in next few years.

Advantage Graphics : 

Advantage Graphics Help in communication. May save words by showing things that would otherwise need many. Externalize internal knowledge I. Reduces the burden on memory and processing by off-loading. II. Makes underlying structures and processes transparent. 4. Used carefully can facilitate comprehension, learning, memory, communication and inference

Why Do Animations Fail? : 

Why Do Animations Fail? Animations may be hard to perceive. 2. Animations may be comprehended discretely. 3. Not universally preferred and often require expertise for understanding.

Conclusions and Implications : 

Conclusions and Implications Many apparent successes turn out not to be successes. Congruence and Apprehension Principles. Interactivity may be key to overcome animations’ drawbacks. Animation must be used with care.



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