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Therefore a curse devours the earth, and its inhabitants suffer for their guilt……….PowerPoint Presentation: The introduction of substances, biological organisms, or energy into the soil, resulting in a change of the soil quality, which is likely to affect the normal use of the soil or endangering public health and the living environment. What is soil pollution????????PowerPoint Presentation: This type of contamination or pollution typically arises from failure due to corrosion of underground storage tanks or of the piping associated with them, historical disposal of coal ash, application of pesticides , percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons , solvents , lead, pesticides, and other heavy metals . This occurrence of this phenomenon is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensities of chemical usage. Its causes…..PowerPoint Presentation: Treated sewage sludge , known in the industry as bio solids, has become controversial as a fertilizer to the land. As it is the by-product of sewage treatment, it generally contains contaminants such as organisms, pesticides, and heavy metals than other soil.PowerPoint Presentation: Contaminated or polluted soil directly affects human health through direct contact with soil or via inhalation of soil contaminants which have vaporized; potentially greater threats are posed by the infiltration of soil contamination into groundwater aquifers used for human consumption, sometimes in areas apparently far removed from any apparent source of above ground contamination. Health consequences from exposure to soil contamination vary greatly depending on pollutant type, pathway of attack and vulnerability of the exposed population. Chronic exposure to chromium, lead and other metals, petroleum, solvents, and many pesticide and herbicide formulations can be carcinogenic, can cause congenital disorders , or can cause other chronic health conditions. Health effectsPowerPoint Presentation: Chronic exposure to benzene at sufficient concentrations is known to be associated with higher incidence of leukemia. Mercury and cyclodienes are known to induce higher incidences of kidney damage, some irreversible. PCBs and cyclodienes are linked to liver toxicity. Organophosphates and carbonates can induce a chain of responses leading to neuromuscular blockage. Many chlorinated solvents induce liver changes, kidney changes and depression of the central nervous system. There is an entire spectrum of further health effects such as headache, nausea, fatigue, eye irritation and skin rash for the above cited and other chemicals. At sufficient dosages a large number of soil contaminants can cause death by exposure via direct contact, inhalation or ingestion of contaminants in groundwater contaminated through soil.PowerPoint Presentation: Not unexpectedly, soil contaminants can have significant deleterious consequences for ecosystems [ . There are radical soil chemistry changes which can arise from the presence of many hazardous chemicals even at low concentration of the contaminant species. These changes can manifest in the alteration of metabolism of endemic microorganisms and arthropods resident in a given soil environment. The result can be virtual eradication of some of the primary food chain, which in turn could have major consequences for predator or consumer species. Even if the chemical effect on lower life forms is small, the lower pyramid levels of the food chain may ingest alien chemicals, which normally become more concentrated for each consuming rung of the food chain. Many of these effects are now well known, such as the concentration of persistent DDT materials for avian consumers, leading to weakening of egg shells, increased chick mortality and potential extinction of species. Ecosystem effectsPowerPoint Presentation: Clean up or environmental remediation is analyzed by environmental scientists who utilize field measurement of soil chemicals and also apply computer models ( GIS in Environmental Contamination ) for analyzing transport ] and fate of soil chemicals. There are several principal strategies for remediation: Excavate soil and take it to a disposal site away from ready pathways for human or sensitive ecosystem contact. This technique also applies to dredging of bay muds containing toxins. Aeration of soils at the contaminated site (with attendant risk of creating air pollution ) Thermal remediation by introduction of heat to raise subsurface temperatures sufficiently high to volatize chemical contaminants out of the soil for vapour extraction. Technologies include ISTD, electrical resistance heating (ERH) , and ET- DSP tm . Bioremediation , involving microbial digestion of certain organic chemicals. Clean up optionsPowerPoint Presentation: Soil pollution can lead to water pollution if poisonous chemicals percolate into groundwater, or if contaminated overflow reaches streams, lakes, or oceans. Soil also naturally contributes to air pollution by releasing likely to explode compounds into the atmosphere. The decay of untreated materials in soil can release sulfur dioxide and other sulfur compounds, causing acid rain. Heavy metals and other potentially toxic elements are the most grave soil pollutants in sewage. Sewage mud contains heavy metals and, if functional over and over again or in large amounts, the treated soil may build up heavy metals and as a result become not capable to even support plant life.PowerPoint Presentation: In accumulation, chemicals that are not water soluble contaminate plants that grow on polluted soils. The greater than ever pollution of the atmosphere has been one of the greatest concerns for science and the universal public in the last fifty years. The brisk industrialization of agriculture, spreading out of the chemical industry, and the need to generate cheap forms of energy has caused the constant release of man-made organic chemicals into natural ecosystems. As a result, the atmosphere, bodies of water, and many soil environments have become contaminated by a large variety of toxic compounds. These include the hazard of acute toxicity, genetic changes, birth defects for humans and other organisms. Some of these artificial toxic compounds are also dead set against to substantial, chemical, or biological dreadful conditions and thus be a symbol of an ecological burden of considerable amount.PowerPoint Presentation: Soil pollution is caused by the existence of man-made chemicals or additional variation in the usual soil environment. This type of infectivity characteristically arises from the rupture of alternative storage links, application of pesticides, and percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel throwing away, leakage of wastes from landfills or nonstop discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. Causes of soil pollutionPowerPoint Presentation: A soil pollutant is any feature which deteriorates the excellence, stability and mineral substance of the soil or which disturbs the organic sense of balance of the organisms in the soil. Pollution in soil is coupled with factors such as: Haphazard use of fertilizers Soil nutrients are vital for plant growth and development. Fertilizers pollute the soil with impurities. The over use of fertilizers reduce quantity of vegetables and crops grown on soil over the Years. It also reduces the protein content of wheat, maize, etc., grown on that soil. The carbohydrate quality of such crops also gets tainted. Surplus potassium at ease in soil decreases Vitamin C in vegetables and fruits. The vegetables and fruits grown on over fertilized Use of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides To kill useless insects living on crops farmers use pesticides. Pesticides not only bring toxic effect on human and animals but also drop off the fertility of the soil.PowerPoint Presentation: Dumping of solid wastes In broad-spectrum, solid waste includes trash, domestic refuse and not needed solid materials such as those from commercial, industrial and agricultural operations. Since a considerable amount of urban solid throw away tends to be paper and food waste, the majority is recyclable or biodegradable in landfills. I the same way, most agricultural waste is recycled and mining waste is left on site. Deforestation Soil Erosion occurs when the worn out particles are dislodged and passed away by wind or water. Deforestation, agricultural development, temperature extremes, and human actions add to this erosion. Humans speed up this process by construction, mining, and overgrazing. It results in floods and cause soil erosion. Forests hold up many habitats and ecosystems, which make available immeasurable feeding pathways or food chains to all species. During the past few years quite a lot of vast green land has been converted into deserts. Deforestation is slowly destroying the most dynamic flora and fauna areas in the human race.PowerPoint Presentation: Soils are critical environment where rock, air and water interface. Consequently, they are subjected to a number of pollutants due to different anthropogenic activities (Industrial, agricultural, transport etc.) ( Facchinelli et al., 2001; Jonathan et al., 2004). The chemical composition of soil, particularly its metal content is environmentally important, because toxic metals concentration can reduce soil fertility, can increase input to food chain, which leads to accumulate toxic metals in food stuffs, and ultimately can endanger human health. Because of its environmental significance, many studies to determine risk caused by metal levels in soil on human health and forest ecosystem have attracted attention in recent years ( Denti et al., 1998; Sandaa et al., 1999; Arantzazu et al., 2000; Krzyztof Losk et al., 2004). Status of Soil Contamination in IndiaPowerPoint Presentation: Govil et al (2001) carried out a geochemical investigation in and around the Patancheru industrial development area of Andhra Pradesh, just north of Hyderabad city, to determine the extent if chemical pollution in the soil. Their data revealed significant contamination, showing two to three times higher levels of toxic elements than normal. Heavy metals like Cr, V, Fe, As, Cd , Se, Ba , Zn, Sr , Mo and Cu were found to be present above normal distribution in the soil.PowerPoint Presentation: Krishna and Govil in 2004 collected soil samples from the Pali Industrial area, present in the western state of Rajasthan. Their data revealed that the soil in the study area is significantly contaminated with high concentrations of heavy elements like Pb , Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr and V. Krishna and Govil also did a similar study in 2007 and collected soil samples from the industrial area of Surat city, present in the western state of Gujarat. Their data revealed that the soil in the study area is significantly contaminated with high concentrations of heavy elements like Ba , Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Sr , V and Zn.PowerPoint Presentation: Lokeshwari and Chandrappa (2006) did a similar study in and around the city of Bangalore, where they assessed the heavy metal contamination of vegetation and soil due to irrigation with sewage-fed lake water on the agricultural land. The results showed significant amount of heavy metals, above the Indian Standard limits in both the soil as well as the vegetation samples.PowerPoint Presentation: Rishabh jain(group leader) Prashant sharma Saurabh agarwal Rajat bhola Raj yadav Rashika jain Niharika paliwal Pihu gupta Nikhel singh Prateek gupta Nikita gelani Paras saini Made by…….PowerPoint Presentation: Thank you For the first time in the history of the world, every human being is now subjected to contact with dangerous chemicals, from the moment of conception until death………… You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.