deep foundation and construction of piles

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Slide 1: 

In the name of ALLAH, the compassionate, the merciful

Deep Foundations and Construction of Piles : 

Deep Foundations and Construction of Piles Presented by:- Wasim Abbass 2006-M.Sc.-Str-34 Presented to:- Prof. Dr. Aziz Akbar Shb Civil Engineering Department University of Engineering & Technology Lahore

Contents : 

Contents Introduction What is foundation Types of Foundation Types of Pile Foundation Purpose of Pile Foundations Stages in Piling Common Pile drilling Methods Conclusion and Recommendation References

Introduction : 

Introduction Soil is the Most Common and the Most Complex Building Material Used Its Properties are Highly Variable With Area With Depth Soils can Compress, Shear, Take on or Release Water (Especially Clays) …. A different amount for each type of soil A different amount for an individual soil … When placed under different (Stress) conditions. By Nature (Uncontrolled) By People (Controlled)

What is a Foundation : 

What is a Foundation To Transmit the weight of a … “Building, Structure, Support, etc.” … So the stress developed may be dissipated into the ground below.

What is a Foundation : 

What is a Foundation It Must: Minimize Settlement (Usually Long-term) Stress Distribution Minimize Elastic Deformation Minimize Consolidation Prevent Shear Failure (Usually Short-Term) Rotational Bearing Capacity Failure Constrained (Vertical) Bearing Failure

Types of Foundations : 

Types of Foundations There are two types of foundations Shellow Foundation Deep Foundation

Shallow Foundation : 

Shallow Foundation Shallow Foundations are usually easy to see and evaluate They are commonly of two types: Long Continuous Strip Footings (Shown Here) Fixed Shape Footings Round Square Rectangular

Shallow Foundation Round Square Rectangular : 

Shallow Foundation Round Square Rectangular

Deep Foundations : 

Deep Foundations Deep Foundations are those which derive their supporting capacity at some depth below the structure, generally D/B>4. There are mainly three types of deep foundations Piles Piers Caissons

Deep Foundations : 

Deep Foundations Piles Pile foundations are the part of a structure used to carry and transfer the load of the structure to the bearing ground located at some depth below ground surface. The main components of the foundation are the pile cap and the piles. Piles are long and slender members which transfer the load to deeper soil or rock of high bearing capacity avoiding shallow soil of low bearing capacity the main types of materials used for piles are Wood, steel and concrete. Piles made from these materials are driven, drilled or jacked into the ground and connected to pile caps. Depending upon type of soil, pile material and load transmitting characteristic piles are classified accordingly.

Types of Pile Foundations : 

Types of Pile Foundations

Objectives of Pile Foundations : 

Objectives of Pile Foundations To transfer compressive loads, uplift / tension, lateral thrust, moments and inclined loads to the hard strata.

Objectives of Pile Foundations : 

Objectives of Pile Foundations To support deep excavations, slopes.

Objectives of Pile Foundations : 

Objectives of Pile Foundations To bypass weak zone, scourable zone, swelling/collapsible/liquefiable zone of soils.

Objectives of Pile Foundations : 

Objectives of Pile Foundations To control seepage.

Objectives of Pile Foundations : 

Objectives of Pile Foundations To underpin an existing structure.

Stages in Piling : 

Stages in Piling Soil investigations Preliminary Pile Design Test Pile Construction and Ultimate Pile Load Tests Final Pile Design Construction of Piles Proof Load Tests Sonic Integrity Tests Other Non-destructive Tests

CONSTRUCTION OF CAST IN-SITU REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES : 

CONSTRUCTION OF CAST IN-SITU REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES

Common Bored Pile Drilling Systems : 

Common Bored Pile Drilling Systems Reverse Rotary with Wash Rotary Bucket Rotary Auger CFI (Continuous Flight Auger Injection System) Percussion (with / without casing) Cable Tool Boring

Common Bored Pile Drilling Systems : 

Common Bored Pile Drilling Systems Reverse Rotary

Cage Lowering : 

Cage Lowering

Slide 23: 


Slide 24: 

Min. 1.0-1.5 m Min. 1.0-1.5 m Steel cage 3 2 1

Bored Pile Grouting : 

Bored Pile Grouting Base Grouting Base + Skin Grouting “The pile load capacity is increased by grouting”.

Construction Defects : 

Construction Defects BASE CAVITY NECKING BELLING OUT INCREASED LENGTH CAGE DISTORTION REDUCED SECTION COLD JOINT TREMIE STUCK-UP SPACER BREAKAGE BASE CAKE HONEY-COMBING CAVITY IN STIFF MIX PULL-OUT OF CAGE

MAIN PRECAUTIONS IN BORED PILING : 

MAIN PRECAUTIONS IN BORED PILING TAKE SOUNDINGS AT END OF BORING AND START OF CONCRETING AND CLEAN THE BASE, IF REQUIRED KEEP STANDBY MACHINERY FOR BORING AND CONCRETING USE PROPER MIX DESIGN THROW FIRST BATCH OF CONCRETE CLOSE TO THE PILE BASE CONTROL SLUMP KEEP TREMIE EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE MONITOR CASING PULL-OUT CONTROL TEMPERATURE PREVENT CAGE DISTORTION ENSURE SPACERS FOR COVER EVALUATE UNDER / OVERCONSUMPTION

Case Study : 

Case Study If we will not follow the precautionary measures carefully then problems like Leaning Tower of Pisa, Transcona Grain Elevator can be there in field.

Transcona Grain Elevator : 

Transcona Grain Elevator Constructed in 1913 Largest Grain Elevator in Canada Design/Construct before era of Soil Mechanics In October, 1913 over a million bushels of wheat It started to fail and tilted 27 degrees in 12 hours

Transcona Grain Elevator : 

Transcona Grain Elevator Only damage was to the distribution building on topInstalled piles to stiff bedrockExcavated in the foundation areaTilted the whole segment upStill in operation today.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS : 

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS THE CONSTRUCTION OF EACH PILE MUST BE SUPERVISED BY AN EXPERIENCED ENGINEER DETAILED PILE CONSTRUCTION RECORD MUST BE MAINTAINED CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SHOULD BE CONTROLLED FOR THEIR QUALITY

References : 

References Wyoming Engineering Society/ ASCE, Cheyenne, WY, February 4, 2006. Pile Foundation Design by Ascalew Abebe & Dr Ian GN Smith, School of the Built Environment, Napier University, Edinburgh Notes on Foundation Engineering II By Dr. Aziz Akbar Civil Engineering Department UET, Lahore.

Slide 35: 

THANK YOU

Slide 36: 

Questions ?