FINAL GEOTECH. INVESTIGATIONS

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS : 

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS Engr. Sohail Kibria M.Sc. Engg. (Civil) GENERAL MANAGER, GT & GE Div.

UNGLORIOUS ? : 

UNGLORIOUS ? THERE IS NO GLORY IN FOUNDATIONS ………….. Karl Terzaghi

STEP CHILD NOTION : 

STEP CHILD NOTION IN CIVIL ENGG. PROJECTS, THE WORKS OF FOUNDATION ENGG. ARE OFTEN TAKEN AS A STEP CHILD; AND WHEN THE STEP CHILD GOES TO TAKE REVENGE, THE RESULTS ARE VERY NASTY …………. Karl Terzaghi

NECESSITY : 

NECESSITY ANY STRUCTURE PLACED ON THE GROUND, TRANSFERS ITS LOAD TO THE SOILS / ROCKS, UNDERNEATH IT. THE RESULT IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRESS & STRAIN IN THE GROUND. THE GROUND MUST BE STRONG ENOUGH TO SUPPORT THE STRUCTURE WITHOUT DISTRESS. GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS ALLOW US TO KNOW COMPETENCE OF GROUND.

……AND ROCKS….? : 

……AND ROCKS….? Geotechnical Investigations cover studies of soils as well as rocks. Are rocks an easier material…. “No, they are more complex.” Then why rocks are not talked about quite often? “Because we do not construct on rocks, very often!”

Slide 7: 

Why geotechnical investigations? “To determine soil/ rock characteristics for engg. design”. Difficult ground conditions and abnormal loading require proper geotech. studies.

Slide 8: 

Sometimes people boast to tell bearing capacity by hitting the ground with a shoe heel or by inserting steel rod. Others require too detailed studies for rigorous computer models. Geotech. Studies are a trade-off between reliability, cost and safety.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES : 

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

WHEN REQUIRED ? : 

WHEN REQUIRED ? NEW DESIGNS EXTENSION WORKS REHABILITATION OF OLD WORKS GROUND IMPROVEMENT WORKS FORENSIC MATTERS CHANGED GEO-ENVIRONS DURING CONSTRUCTION

MAIN USES : 

MAIN USES Foundation Design Retaining Wall Design Dam Design Roadway Design Air Field Design Excavation Support Design Tunnel Design Ground Improvement Underpinning Seismotectonic Studies Design of Excavation Support System

BROAD DIVISIONING OF GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS : 

BROAD DIVISIONING OF GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS DESTRUCTIVE METHODS NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHODS

EMERGING TRENDS : 

EMERGING TRENDS Construction on the difficult ground Heavy / Tall structures in urban areas Construction on fills / reclaimed lands New materials & techniques GIS Applications Development of mega projects

PROCESS OF GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS : 

PROCESS OF GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS Study of available data Site reconnaissance Study of precedents Analysis of remote sensing data Performance of field investigations Performance of laboratory testing Interaction with other design groups Interpretation & analysis Recommendations for design

IMPORTANT BENEFITS : 

IMPORTANT BENEFITS SAFETY OF PROJECTS COST SAVINGS KNOWLEDGE OF RISK LEVEL CONTROL OVER LIFE HAZARD ENSURING DURABILITY

LESS DEVELOPED AREAS : 

LESS DEVELOPED AREAS Characterization of granular soils. Drilling/Sampling in granular strata. Ground freezing / frozen samples.

LESS DEVELOPED AREAS : 

LESS DEVELOPED AREAS Studies of soft lake beds. Stability studies of landslide areas. Determination of ground improvement method.

RULES FOR TYPE & MAGNITUDE OF GEOTECH. INVESTIGATIONS : 

RULES FOR TYPE & MAGNITUDE OF GEOTECH. INVESTIGATIONS NO HARD & FAST RULES DEPTH OF EXPLORATION SHOULD NOT BE LESS THAN THAT OF THE EXPECTED STRESSED ZONE (10% stress level) FINANCES AVAILABLE TIME AVAILABLE DEGREE OF SAFETY REQUIRED RELIABILITY OF TESTING AGENCY GROUND VARIATIONS

Slide 19: 

q 0.1q 10 % pressure 2-2.5 B Square Foundation B

Slide 20: 

q 0.1q 10 % pressure 4-4.5 B Strip Foundation B

Slide 21: 

q 0.1q 10 % pressure 1-1.5 B Mat Foundation Mat Foundation B

Slide 22: 

10 % pressure 1-1.5 B q Series of Square Foundations B

Slide 23: 

Group of Piles B 1-1.5 B 10 % pressure

MAJOR FIELD STUDIES : 

MAJOR FIELD STUDIES REMOTE SENSING GEOLOGICAL MAPPING GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS DRILLING TESTPITS / TRENCHES FIELD TESTING SAMPLING

REMOTE SENSING : 

REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE IMAGERIES AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

SIALKOT AIRPORT SITE SPOT IMAGERY : 

SIALKOT AIRPORT SITE SPOT IMAGERY

HARAM SHARIF, MAKKAHSATELLITE IMAGERY : 

HARAM SHARIF, MAKKAHSATELLITE IMAGERY

MAKKAH…IMAGERY WRAPPED ON SURFER CONTOURS : 

MAKKAH…IMAGERY WRAPPED ON SURFER CONTOURS

GEOLOGICAL MAPPING : 

GEOLOGICAL MAPPING THE SURFACE GEOLOGICAL FEATURES ARE PICKED ON A BASE TOPOSURVEY MAP TO DEVELOP GEOLOGICAL MAPS AND CROSS SECTIONS. FURTHER GEOTECHNICAL STUDIES ARE PLANNED WHERE INFORMATION IS SCANTY ON GEOLOGICAL MAPS.

NEW MURREE W/S PROJECTGEOLOGICAL MAP : 

NEW MURREE W/S PROJECTGEOLOGICAL MAP

A GEOLOGICAL SECTIONALONG KKH : 

A GEOLOGICAL SECTIONALONG KKH

GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS : 

GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS RESISTIVITY SURVEY SEISMIC REFRACTION SUREVYS SEISMIC REFLECTION SURVEYS CROSS HOLE SURVEYS UPHOLE / DOWNHOLE SURVEYS MAGNETIC SURVEYS / GEORADAR SONIC SURVEYS GAMMA LOGGING

CROSS HOLE SEISMOGRAPH : 

CROSS HOLE SEISMOGRAPH

DRILLING : 

DRILLING HAND AUGERING POWER AUGERING LIGHT PERCUSSION HEAVY PERCUSSION STRAIGHT ROTARY REVERSE ROTARY BECKER DRILLING ROTARY BUCKET DRILLING

DRILLING IN DIFFICULT GROUND : 

DRILLING IN DIFFICULT GROUND DRILLING IN SOILS WITH EMBEDDED GRAVELS DRILLING IN GRAVELS/ COBBLES/ BOULDERS DRILLING IN CONGLOMERATES DRILLING IN FRACTURED ROCK DRILLING IN VERY HARD ROCK OFF-SHORE DRILLING

Slide 36: 

DRILLING IN SOFT LAKE DEPOSITS DRILLING ON BARGES DRILLING IN CAVERNOUS GROUND DRILLING IN DUMPED FILL

ROTARY DRILLING SYSTEMS : 

ROTARY DRILLING SYSTEMS STRAIGHT ROTARY (INJECTION OF FLUID IN THE DRILLING ROD, SUITABLE FOR SMALLER DIA HOLES) REVERSE ROTARY (SUCTION OF FLUID FROM THE DRILLING ROD, SUITABLE FOR LARGE DIA HOLES)

Slide 38: 

ROTARY BUCKET / AUGER (PARTICULARLY SUITABLE FOR SOILS WITH GRAVELS / COBBLES) ROTARY HELICAL AUGER (HIGH SPEED DRILLING FOR SOFT SOILS)

Slide 39: 

REMODELLING OF THAL CANAL MIANWALI

Slide 40: 

MAPLE LEAF CEMENT FACTORY DAUDKHEL

STRAIGHT ROTARY DRILLING AT SIALKOT AIRPORT SITE : 

STRAIGHT ROTARY DRILLING AT SIALKOT AIRPORT SITE

Slide 42: 

DRILLING AT PAK. SECRETARIAT BLOCK SITE, ISLMBD.

ROTARY DRILLING ALONG KKH : 

ROTARY DRILLING ALONG KKH

TERRADRILL AT BHIT GAS FIELD : 

TERRADRILL AT BHIT GAS FIELD

MANGLA LAKE DRILLING : 

MANGLA LAKE DRILLING

GAS EJECTION DURING DRILLING IN MANGLA LAKE : 

GAS EJECTION DURING DRILLING IN MANGLA LAKE

MAPLE LEAF CEMENT FACTORY DAUDKHEL : 

MAPLE LEAF CEMENT FACTORY DAUDKHEL

COMMON FIELD TESTS : 

COMMON FIELD TESTS STANDARD PENETRATION TEST-SPT CONE PENETRATION TEST-CPT VANE SHEAR TEST-VST PRESSUREMETER TEST-PMT DILATOMETER TEST-DMT PERMEABILITY TEST DENSITY & MOISTURE TESTS PLATE / PILE LOAD TESTS ROCK MECHANICS TESTS FALLING WEIGHT DEFLECTOMETER-FWD DYNAMIC CONE PENETROMETER-DCP ROCK MECHANICS TESTING PERMEABILITY TEST

Slide 49: 


Slide 50: 

Penetration Devices for Various In-Situ Tests (c) CONE PENETRATION TEST (CONE) (a) SPT SAMPLER (b) PRESSUREMETER TEST SETUP (d) VANE SHEAR TEST (VANE)

Slide 51: 

Penetration Devices for Various In-Situ Tests (e) IOWA BOREHOLE SHEAR TEST SETUP (f) IOWA STEPPED BLADE (g) PLATE LOAD TEST SETUP (h) DILATOMETER BLADE

Slide 52: 

The NDMT Equipment Assembly at the Site

MANUAL SPT SYSTEM : 

MANUAL SPT SYSTEM

TRIP SPT ON BARGE IN MANGLA LAKE : 

TRIP SPT ON BARGE IN MANGLA LAKE

PLATE LOAD TEST AT BHIT : 

PLATE LOAD TEST AT BHIT

DRILLING FOR 28 STOREY ISE TOWER IN ISLAMABAD : 

DRILLING FOR 28 STOREY ISE TOWER IN ISLAMABAD

ISE ISLAMABAD : 

ISE ISLAMABAD

VANE SHEAR EQUIPMENT AT MANGLA LAKE : 

VANE SHEAR EQUIPMENT AT MANGLA LAKE

EXCAVATION OF TESTPITS : 

EXCAVATION OF TESTPITS

FIELD DENSITY MEASUREMENT IN TESTPIT : 

FIELD DENSITY MEASUREMENT IN TESTPIT

SIALKOT AIRPORT SITE : 

SIALKOT AIRPORT SITE

UDS RECOVERY AT SIALKOT AIRPORT SITE : 

UDS RECOVERY AT SIALKOT AIRPORT SITE

SOIL / ROCK SAMPLING : 

SOIL / ROCK SAMPLING

HAND CARVED UNDISTURBED SOIL BLOCKS : 

HAND CARVED UNDISTURBED SOIL BLOCKS

Slide 65: 

MAIN ADVANTAGE MAIN LIMITATIONS INEVITABLE SAMPLE DISTURBANCE LEADING TO FAULTY DESIGNS TIME CONSUMING COSTLY PROMISE TO MEASURE CLOSE TO REAL SOIL BEHAVIOR IN LITTLE COST AND TIME

MAIN BENEFITS OF TESTING UDS : 

MAIN BENEFITS OF TESTING UDS SHEAR STRENGTH COMPRESSIBILITY LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ELASTIC PARAMETERS RELATIVE DENSITY COLLAPSE / SWELL POTENTIAL SUBSIDENCE UNDER SHOCK / BLAST / EQ

WHY SOIL INVESTIGATIONS? : 

WHY SOIL INVESTIGATIONS? WHAT IF SOIL INVEST. ARE SKIPPED DEMERITS OF SMALL SCALE (OR NO) INVESTIGATIONS GEOLOGICAL HISTORY MAY BE SIMILAR BUT ENGG. BEHAVIOUR IS DIFFERENT. SINGLE BOREHOLE NOTION UNDUE SAVING IN SOIL INVEST. MAY MAKE THE FOUNDATION DESIGN VERY COSTLY SOIL INVEST. PREVENTS LATER LITIGATIONS

SOME IMPORTANT LAB. TESTS : 

SOME IMPORTANT LAB. TESTS CLASSIFICATION TESTS SHEAR STRENGTH TESTS COMPRESSIBILITY TESTS SPECIAL TESTS FOR PROBLEM SOILS MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONSHIP PERMEABILITY TESTS DYNAMIC TESTS CHEMICAL TESTS

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION : 

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION EVOLVING SOIL PARAMETERS RELEVANT ENGINEERING ANALYSIS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DESIGN

EVOLVING SOIL PARAMETERS : 

EVOLVING SOIL PARAMETERS THE RESULTS OF ANALYSIS WILL BE NO BETTER THAN THE REPRESENTATIVENESS OF THE SOIL PARAMETERS ADOPTED, NO MATTER HOW SOPHISTICATED MATHEMATICAL PROCEDURES AND COMPUTER SOFTWARES ARE USED. FOR COMPUTERS; “GARBAGE IN = GARBAGE OUT” CARELESSLY SELECTED PARAMETERS WILL LEAD TO WRONG CONCLUSIONS / RECOMMENDATIONS.

JUDGEMENT IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING : 

JUDGEMENT IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING ALL THE NECESSARY EVALUATIONS MUST BE MADE, USING STATE 0F THE ART METHODS. YET JUDGEMENT IS REQUIRED TO DEFINE FINAL PARAMETERS. JUDGEMENT IS AN ART AND IS THE PREROGATIVE OF HIGHLY QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS ONLY.

EVOLVING SOIL / ROCK PARAMETERS : 

EVOLVING SOIL / ROCK PARAMETERS LEAST VALUE ARITHMETIC AVERAGE WEIGHTED AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION BASED 2/3rd-1/3rd RATIONALE PERCENTILE VALUE PRECEDENTS JUDGEMENT BASED DECISIONS

GENERAL ENGINEERING ANALYSES / STUDIES : 

GENERAL ENGINEERING ANALYSES / STUDIES BEARING CAPACITY SETTLEMENT SHEARING STRENGTH SEEPAGE STABILITY LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES DESIGN CBR SEISMOTECTONIC STUDIES

GENERAL GEOTECHNICAL RECOMMENDATIONS : 

GENERAL GEOTECHNICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOUNDATION TYPE, SIZE, DEPTH LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW / DEEP FOUNDATIONS EXPECTED TOTAL & DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENTS LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS SUBGRADE MODULUS SOIL SPRING STIFFNESS GROUND ACCELERATION FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST SLIDING EXPECTED SEEPAGE PAVEMENT DESIGN PARAMETERS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SOURCES CEMENT & STEEL CORROSIVITY

CURRENT SITUATION : 

CURRENT SITUATION More detailed work / trials on computers done now “…....the effort has increased…!” Less emphasis gradually, on UDS in the world. More emphasis on modern in-situ measurements. Quick & cost saving methods are needed (Lab. Testing is not waited for, generally).

CURRENT SITUATION : 

CURRENT SITUATION Strict / definite lab. test Specifications required. Detailed geotechnical analyses by a no. of methods (manual or computer based) needed.

CURRENT SITUATION : 

CURRENT SITUATION Different geotechnical standards in different countries ……. many standardized. Dynamic analyses becoming more common.

CONSTRUCTION AT B-109SUBSURFACE SOIL PROFILE : 

CONSTRUCTION AT B-109SUBSURFACE SOIL PROFILE

CONSTRUCTION AT B-109SHOCK DAMPING & LIQUEFACTION MITIGATIVE MEASURES : 

CONSTRUCTION AT B-109SHOCK DAMPING & LIQUEFACTION MITIGATIVE MEASURES

BABA FARID SHRINE PAKPATTAN : 

BABA FARID SHRINE PAKPATTAN

WEAK THICK FILL AT PAKPATTAN : 

WEAK THICK FILL AT PAKPATTAN

THICK FILL AT LADY READING HOSPITAL, PESHAWAR : 

THICK FILL AT LADY READING HOSPITAL, PESHAWAR

LUCKY CEMENT, D.I. KHAN : 

LUCKY CEMENT, D.I. KHAN

SOFT & WET GROUND AT LUCKY CEMENT : 

SOFT & WET GROUND AT LUCKY CEMENT

LUCKY CEMENTKILN SETTLEMENT : 

LUCKY CEMENTKILN SETTLEMENT

A RUGGED VIEW OF MAKKAH TUNNEL AREA : 

A RUGGED VIEW OF MAKKAH TUNNEL AREA

Slide 87: 

SOME LANDSLIDE VIEWS ALONG KKH

Slide 95: 

A FEW VIEWS OF MAKKAH AL MUKARRAMAH TERRAIN

ROCK BOLTING : 

ROCK BOLTING

NOISELESS ROCK BREAKING : 

NOISELESS ROCK BREAKING

SOME SPECIAL TOPICS : 

SOME SPECIAL TOPICS Difference in straight and reverse rotary drilling. Importance of geotech. codes. Art or Science….?

Slide 108: 

Judgment in Geotech. Engg. Statistics in Geotech. Engg. Importance of specifications for lab. testing.

Slide 109: 

Evolving Geotechnical Parameters. STCB, DTCB, TTCB. Sample disturbance during geotech. Investigations.

Slide 110: 

Factors of Safety in Geotech. Engg. Geo-environmental Aspects Why supervision of geotech. Investigations?.

CONCLUSIONS : 

CONCLUSIONS GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS ARE A MUST FOR SAFE & COST EFFECTIVE DESIGNS OF ENGG. PROJECTS. ONLY CREDIBLE AGENCIES (HAVING STANDARD & CALIBRATED EQUIP.) MUST BE ENTRUSTED WITH THIS TASK. ONCE THE INVESTIGATIONS ARE OVER, THERE IS NO PHYSICAL CLUE ON GROUND FOR VERIFICATION. THJEREFORE GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS MUST ALWAYS BE SUPERVIZED, IN VIEW OF THE RISKS INVOLVED. NESPAK’S P.M.S MUST EDUCATE THE CLIENTS REGARDING THE REQUIREMENTS OF AUTHENTICITY OF DATA.

CONCLUSIONS : 

CONCLUSIONS ERRONEOUS GEOTECH. DATA CAN LAND US INTO TROUBLE. THEREFORE WE MUST NOT ACCEPT GEOTECH. REPORTS PREPARED BY COMMERCIAL AGENCIES. THE P.M.S MUST EDUCATE THE CLIENTS THAT COST OF PROPER INVESTIGATIONS IS PEANUTS IN VIEW OF SAFETY OF THE PROJECTS.

THANK YOU : 

THANK YOU