Computer_Generations

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COMPUTER GENERATIONS : 

COMPUTER GENERATIONS Ritika 8-E

FIRST GENERATION(1945-1956) : 

FIRST GENERATION(1945-1956) First generation computers were characterized by the fact that operating instructions were made-to-order for the specific task for which the computer was to be used. Each computer had a different binary-coded program called a machine language that told it how to operate. This made the computer difficult to program and limited its versatility and speed. Other distinctive features of first generation computers were the use of vacuum tubes (responsible for their breathtaking size) and magnetic drums for data storage.

Key Features : 

Key Features Vacuum Tubes Magnetic Drum 4,000 bits Hard Wire Programs in computers IBM 650, Univac I ENIAC

ENIAC at Moore School, University of Pennsylvania : 

ENIAC at Moore School, University of Pennsylvania

SECOND GENERATION(1956-1963) : 

SECOND GENERATION(1956-1963) Throughout the early 1960's, there were a number of commercially successful second generation computers used in business, universities, and government from companies such as Burroughs, Control Data, Honeywell, IBM, Sperry-Rand, and others. These second generation computers were also of solid state design, and contained transistors in place of vacuum tubes.

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Second Generation Computer - 1956

SECOND GENERATION(1956-1963) : 

SECOND GENERATION(1956-1963) They also contained all the components we associate with the modern day computer: printers, tape storage, disk storage, memory, operating systems, and stored programs. One important example was the IBM 1401, which was universally accepted throughout industry, and is considered by many to be the Model T of the computer industry. By 1965, most large business routinely processed financial information using second generation computers.

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Transistor

Key Features : 

Key Features Transistors Magnetic Cores 32,000 bits Punch Cards CDC, GE, IBM

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Third Generation - 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits

THIRD GENERATION(1965-1971) : 

THIRD GENERATION(1965-1971) Though transistors were clearly an improvement over the vacuum tube, they still generated a great deal of heat, which damaged the computer's sensitive internal parts. The quartz rock eliminated this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer with Texas Instruments, developed the integrated circuit (IC) in 1958. The IC combined three electronic components onto a small silicon disc, which was made from quartz. Scientists later managed to fit even more components on a single chip, called a semiconductor.

THIRD GENERATION(1965-1971) : 

THIRD GENERATION(1965-1971) As a result, computers became ever smaller as more components were squeezed onto the chip. Another third-generation development included the use of an operating system that allowed machines to run many different programs at once with a central program that monitored and coordinated the computer's memory.

Key Features : 

Key Features Silicon Chips (Integrated circuits)= IC Cores, IC’s 128,000 bits Keyboard Entry IBM, NCR, Honeywell

FOURTH GENERATION(1971-Present) : 

FOURTH GENERATION(1971-Present) In 1981, IBM introduced its personal computer (PC) for use in the home, office and schools. The 1980's saw an expansion in computer use in all three arenas as clones of the IBM PC made the personal computer even more affordable. The number of personal computers in use more than doubled from 2 million in 1981 to 5.5 million in 1982.

Fourth Generation - 1971-Present: Microprocessors : 

Fourth Generation - 1971-Present: Microprocessors

Key Features : 

Key Features Silicon Chips (Large scale integrated circuits)=LSI IC’s, LSI’s 100 million bits Read programs off disks Apple, Xerox, Texas Instrument, Hewlett-Packard

FIFTH GENERATION(Future) : 

FIFTH GENERATION(Future) Many advances in the science of computer design and technology are coming together to enable the creation of fifth-generation computers. Two such engineering advances are parallel processing, which replaces von Neumann's single central processing unit design with a system harnessing the power of many CPUs to work as one. Another advance is superconductor technology, which allows the flow of electricity with little or no resistance, greatly improving the speed of information flow.

Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence : 

Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence

FIFTH GENERATION(Future) : 

FIFTH GENERATION(Future) Computers today have some attributes of fifth generation computers. For example, expert systems assist doctors in making diagnoses by applying the problem-solving steps a doctor might use in assessing a patient's needs. It will take several more years of development before expert systems are in widespread use.

Key Features : 

Key Features Silicon Chips ( Very Large Integrated Circuits) VLSI LSI’s, VLSI’s Unlimited CdRom, Optical Disk NEC, Packard Bell, Compaq, Other Clones

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