nervous system 2 lecture

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Slide 1: 

Homeostasis Relative uniformity of the normal body’s internal environment

Slide 2: 

What does the nervous system do to create homeostasis?

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Before the break we talked about Central Nervous System anatomy

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Central Nervous System anatomy What parts can you remember?

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The subarachnoid space in the brain, the spinal cord & the cerebral ventricles are filled with… Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Slide 6: 

The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by tough, fluid-filled membranes called meninges

Slide 7: 

Meninges Does this word remind you of a disease?

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Do you remember the name of the part of the nervous system that contains the nerves??? Peripheral Nervous System

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The part of the nervous system that extends down from the brain toward the rest of the body is… The spinal cord!

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How long is the spinal cord in a person of average height? 17 to 18 inches

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So how does the peripheral nervous system work?

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Let’s say you are standing by the stove and your arm gets kind of close to the burner.

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Receptors in the skin feel the heat and send this message to your brain via sensory nerves

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Your brain says, “You’d better move your arm.” Motor nerves carry this message to your arm.

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What are our senses? Smell Sight Touch Hearing Taste

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Now let’s think about the nerve cell itself. What do we call nerve cells?

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Slide 18: 

Nerve cells are surrounded by non-neuronal cells called glial cells (also called neuroglia)

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DON’T PANIC – YOU DON’T HAVE TO WRITE THIS DEFINITION ON THE TEST. You should look for the answer to number 11 here, however. Neuroglia are like glue, but besides cushioning and holding neurons in place, they also supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, insulate one neuron from another, destroy pathogens, remove dead neurons, and modulate neurotransmission.

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Neurons look sort of like trees (if you can imagine seeing the roots too) “soma” is another name for “cell body”

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The projections that receive impulses and transmit them are called… dendrites

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The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and the mitochondria is… The cell body

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The impulses are transmitted away from the cell body by… axons

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The gaps between one nerve’s axon and the next nerve’s dendrite are called… synapses

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Impulses travel across the synapse by using chemicals called neurotransmitters

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If we click here we can read a little about neurotransmitters…

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Let’s look at the neuron again. Notice the myelin sheaths.

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Do you remember the difference in gray matter and white matter? It’s myelin.

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Schwann cells are a type of glial cells that are large, nucleated & form myelin for cells in the PNS

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Islands of gray matter in the cerebrum are called basal ganglia

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Do you remember which part of the nervous system regulates involuntary functions? autonomic

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What about voluntary functions? somatic

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And finally… Neuron pathways where impulses are conducted from receptors to effectors are called… Reflex arcs

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