Skeletal System-review

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Presentation Transcript

SKELETAL SYSTEM review : 

SKELETAL SYSTEM review

Major Functions : 

Major Functions The skeletal system has several functions…

Major Functions : 

Major Functions Support Protection Muscle attachment Provide shape Blood cell production Storage of calcium

Generic Parts : 

Generic Parts Can you name some bone parts we have talked about in class???

Generic Parts : 

Generic Parts Epiphysis Diaphysis Cartilage Marrow Osteocytes Osteoblasts Osteoclasts

The long and short of it : 

The long and short of it Long bones contain: compact bone spongy bone and marrow, which makes red and white blood cells

cartilage : 

cartilage Connective tissue found in joints Specialized cells called chondrocytes Three types of cartilage Elastic Hyaline Fibrocartilage Does not contain blood vessels Functions like a rubber cushion at ends of joints

The skeleton is divided into two sections : 

The skeleton is divided into two sections

Two sections : 

Two sections Axial Appendicular Bones of the pelvis, arms, legs, hands, feet, clavicles, scapulae

The Axial skeleton : 

The Axial skeleton

Another name for the skull is… : 

Another name for the skull is… The skull consists of several bones that have fused together at joints called sutures. Frontal Parietal (2) Temporal (2) Occipital Ethmoid Sphenoid

Another name for the skull is… : 

Another name for the skull is… The cranium

Facial bones : 

Facial bones The mandible is also called the jaw bone. The eye sockets are also called orbits.

Rib cage : 

Rib cage Provides protection to heart & lungs How many ribs are there??? The tip of the sternum is called the xiphoid. This part is cartilage.

Rib cage : 

Rib cage 12 pairs All attached to the spine 10 pairs attached to the sternum 2 pairs of “floating ribs”

Spine - Vertebrae : 

Spine - Vertebrae Cervical – 7 Thoracic – 12 Lumbar – 5 Sacrum Coccyx – 1-3

Appendicular skeleton : 

Appendicular skeleton In addition to the pelvis, arm, leg, hand, and foot bones, the clavicles and scapulae are included in this division

Pelvis : 

Pelvis You will notice the sacrum and coccyx here also…

Pelvis : 

Pelvis Ilium – iliac crest Ischium Pubis – symphysis

Arm : 

Arm Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges

Leg : 

Leg Femur – head, neck, greater and lesser trochanter Patella Tibia – medial ankle “bone” Fibula – lateral ankle “bone” Tarsals – talus, calcaneus Metatarsals Phalanges

Types of Fractures : 

Types of Fractures Simple – break thru bone Compound – bone end thru skin

Types of Fractures : 

Types of Fractures Greenstick – bent bone Comminuted – splintered bone

Types of Fractures : 

Types of Fractures Impacted – bone pieces pressed together Spiral – break caused by twist

Types of Fractures : 

Types of Fractures Depressed Colles – fracture of the distal radius

Joint Types : 

Joint Types Synarthroses – immovable (such as cranial bones) Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable (such as synthesis pubis) Diathroses – freely moveable

Diathroses Joints : 

Diathroses Joints Hinge – elbow, knee, fingers, toes Pivot – axis, forearm Saddle – thumb Condyloid – wrist, ankle Ball and Socket – shoulder, hip Gliding - vertebrae

Diseases/Disorders : 

Diseases/Disorders Sprain – stretched or torn ligament or tendon Arthritis – inflamed joint Osteomyelitis – infected bone Osteoporosis – loss of bone density Bone cancer Subluxation - dislocation

The End : 

The End

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