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plant layout ppts


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PLANT LAYOUT Industrial Engineering -Rinky Trivedi

Types of plant layout:

Types of plant layout 1. Product or line layout 2. Process or functional layout 3. Fixed position or location layout 4. Combined or group layout

Product or line layout :

Product or line layout Under this, machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the product. The materials move form one workstation to another sequentially without any backtracking or deviation. Under this, machines are grouped in one sequence. Therefore materials are fed into the first machine and finished goods travel automatically from machine to machine, the output of one machine becoming input of the next.

A line layout for two products is given below:

A line layout for two products is given below

PowerPoint Presentation:

The grouping of machines should be done keeping in mind the following general principles. All the machine tools or other items of equipments must be placed at the point demanded by the sequence of operations. There should no points where one line crossed another line. Materials may be fed where they are required for assembly but not necessarily at one point. All the operations including assembly, testing, packing must be included in the line.


Advantages a) Low cost of material handling, due to straight and short route and absence of backtracking. b) Smooth and uninterrupted operations. c) Continuous flow of work. d) Lesser investment in inventory and work in progress. e) Optimum use of floor space. f) Shorter processing time or quicker output. g) Less congestion of work in the process. h) Simple and effective inspection of work and simplified production control.


Disadvantages a. High initial capital investment in special purpose machine. b. Heavy overhead charges. c. Breakdown of one machine will hamper the whole production process. d. Lesser flexibility as specially laid out for particular product.


Suitability 1) Mass production of standardized products. 2) Simple and repetitive manufacturing process. 3) Operation time for different process is more or less equal. 4) Reasonably stable demand for the product. 5) Continuous supply of materials.

Process layout:

Process layout In this type of layout machines of a similar type are arranged together at one place. E.g. Machines performing drilling operations are arranged in the drilling department, machines performing casting operations be grouped in the casting department. Therefore the machines are installed in the plants, which follow the process layout. Hence, such layouts typically have drilling department, milling department, welding department, heating department and painting department etc.

Process layout for two products is given below:

Process layout for two products is given below

The grouping of machines according to the process has to be done keeping in mind the following principles:

The grouping of machines according to the process has to be done keeping in mind the following principles a) The distance between departments should be as short as possible for avoiding long distance movement of materials b) The departments should be in sequence of operations c) The arrangement should be convenient for inspection and supervision


Advantages a)Lower initial capital investment in machines and equipments. There is high degree of machine utilization, as a machine is not blocked for a single product. b)The overhead costs are relatively low. c)Change in output design and volume can be more easily adapted to the output of variety of products. d)Breakdown of one machine does not result in complete work stoppage. e)Supervision can be more effective and specialized. f)There is a greater flexibility of scope for expansion.


Disadvantages a. Material handling costs are high due to backtracking. b. More skilled labour is required resulting in higher cost. c. Time gap or lag in production is higher. d. Work in progress inventory is high needing greater storage space. e. More frequent inspection is needed which results in costly supervision.


Suitability 1 Products are not standardized. 2 Quantity produced is small. 3 There are frequent changes in design and style of product. 4 Job shop type of work is to be done.

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