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Nazmul Hasan (1168) Gazi Rabia Sultana (1100) Sakib-Al-Kauser (1111) Rumman-Ul-Islam (1130) GROUP MEMBERS: Introduction : Introduction Many tons and numerous varieties of pharmaceutical substances are used throughout the world. They enter the environment via excretion, improper disposal of industrial waste. If they are not treated and degraded completely they could contaminate the environment. So it is important to implement proper management of this hazards caused by the pharmaceutical industries. Water pollution in pharmaceutical industry : Water pollution in pharmaceutical industry Virtually water plays the very important role in the growth and development of the history of mankind and universe Water pollution is any physical, chemical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses it or lives in it Industrial pollution is an area of growing environmental concern in Bangladesh. Slide 5: The sources of pollutions are- -Pharmaceuticals - textile - plastic - petroleum refineries and -metal works All these are considered as highly polluting. Slide 6: These wastes contain various contaminants, which are organic and inorganic in nature and is discharged directly into the surface water with or without any treatment. The major effects of toxic discharged on aquatic fauna and water quality are the fish dead and contamination of water by heavy metals. Control 1) Physical treatment: Methods employed are- -Sedimentation and gravity settling methods -Adsorption process using activated carbon Slide 7: Chemical treatment: Such a treatment is generally brought about by- -coagulation, -flocculation, -emulsion breaking, -precipitation and -neutralization. Biological treatment: This is another treatment process which consumes oxygen dissolved in water. Air pollution : Air pollution The Pharmaceutical Industries discharge a large portion of the volatile chemicals in the air such as: methanol, dichloromethane, toluene, ethylene glycol, and acentonitrile. According to the EPA, the releases reported in TRI data were distributed as follows: -Air: 57% -Underground Injection: 25% -Surface Waters: 17% -Land: 1% This differs from the average distributions of all other industries which is: -Air: 59% -Surface Waters: 30% -Land: 10% Slide 9: Air pollution can essentially be classified into two major categories: -Those suitable for removing particulate matter. -Those associated with removing gaseous pollutants. Control Air pollutants are removed by : Coarse diameter: settling chamber, cyclones and spray chambers. Sub-micron particles : bag filters, electrostatic precipitators and venture scrubbers. Slide 10: Intermediate particles : impingement separators or low-energy wet collectors. Gaseous pollutants: absorption, adsorption, condensation or incineration. Thermal pollution : Thermal pollution Changes in temperature cause potential damage to the aquatic environment. High temperature causes reduction in the assimilative capacity of organic wastes. Control Cooling towers are most often considered, followed by cooling ponds and spray ponds. Wet cooling towers- Cooling results from the evaporation of a portion of water. Dry cooling towers- The temperature decreases due to conduction and convection . Slide 12: Cooling ponds- This are generally considered for heat removal when suitable land is available at a reasonable price. Spray ponds- It provides a variable alternative to cooling ponds when land costs are too high. Some General Health Hazards : Some General Health Hazards General health hazards in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals include: -dust and noise exposures, - repetitive motion disorders, -exposure to formaldehyde, and -exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Slide 14: Dust :It becomes airborne during manufacture and may pose an allergic hazard from dust. Formaldehyde : Formaldehyde may cause lung cancer, Hodgkin’s disease, and prostate cancer. Acute exposures can cause pulmonary edema and pneumonia leading to death. Formaldehyde also causes allergic dermatitis. Ultraviolet lamps: Although non-ionizing, ultra-violet radiation is dangerous and can cause skin cancer. Slide 15: The constant repetitive motion : Motion associated with packaging and filling could lead to carpal tunnel syndrome or tendinitis. Tendinitis symptoms usually are : -Swelling - Pain and tenderness in the affected area which includes >hand, >wrist, or >forearm. Slide 16: Carpal tunnel syndrome: Main causes are: -repeated bending and twisting of the wrist, especially when force is applied. The usual symptoms are- -pain in the hand, -numbness, -tingling, -burning sensations, -a dry shiny palm and -clumsiness of the hands. Chemical hazards : Chemical hazards 1) Many chemicals can cause severe burns, if these come into contact with living tissue. Living tissues may be destroyed by chemical reaction such as: -Dehydration by strong dehydrating agents -Digestion by strong acids and bases -Oxidation by strong oxidizing agents 2) Eyes and mucous membranes of throats are particularly susceptible to the effect of corrosive dust, mist and gases. Slide 18: 3) In addition, many chemicals are very toxic, flammable and detonable. Chloroform, benzene, chlorinated hydrocarbons; low boiling fractions of petroleum are some of the common solvents used in pharmaceutical industries. 4) In pharmaceutical industries, most of the dermatitis can be attributed to synthetic drugs, especially to acridines and phenothiazine compounds. 5) While grinding vegetable drugs, dust evolved is irritating. For example, capsicum and podophyllum affect the eyes and irritation is painful. Overcome: : Overcome: Solvents used in the extractions of plants, purification of synthetic drugs and in chemical analysis should be handled with care. Cleanliness observing and remove the people from the areas as soon as the first sign of skin reaction occurs. Application of barrier cream before commencing the work has been found useful in protecting individuals. Goggles are to be worn in case of eye irritation. Safety regulations and protecting measures of good-house-keeping principles. Dust explosions : Dust explosions In pharmaceutical industries, a large number of grinding operations is employed. If iron or stone pieces get into the disintegrator or other similar girding mills, sparks are emitted, which might bring about explosion with some easily combustible materials. It has been found that in pharmaceutical and ancillary factories, dust of starch and dextrin besides organic substances are extremely hazardous. Safety measures: : Safety measures: Suitable precautions against accumulation of dust should be taken. The methods used for controlling dust in pharmaceutical industries are- -Filtration -Inertial separation -Electrostatic precipitation Slide 22: Filtration: Air which contains dust is sucked or blown through a suitable mechanical barrier whose pore size is sufficiently small to retain particles. Materials used for this purpose include paper, felt, cotton-wool and nylon. Inertial separators: Air is allowed to circulate in a spiral manner through a cone-shaped vessel→ particles of drugs are thrown outwards to the walls of the cyclone separator → slide down to a hopper which can be subsequently withdrawn. Electrostatic precipitators: Fine metal wires are stretched between the tubes → Several thousand volts are applied → high potential difference ionizes the dust particles that are carried by air stream → dust is deposited on metal plates → colleted periodically Noise abatement : Noise abatement Fire and explosion hazards : Fire and explosion hazards Causes: -Due to the causality and careless handling electrical equipment are the main causes of fire or explosion hazards. -Inadequate ventilation can be dangerous in case of explosion. Slide 26: Possible sources of fires are : -flames, -sparks, -heated materials, -matches, -smoking, -welding, -cutting and -static electricity. Safety measures: : Safety measures: Careful plant lay out and judicious choice of construction materials can reduce such events. Hazardous operations should be isolated by conducting them in separate buildings or by the use of brick firewalls. Equipment should be designed to meet the specifications and codes of recognized authorities. Slide 28: Adequate venting by using both spring-loaded valves and rupture discs. By eliminating the unnecessary ignition sources. The installation of sufficient fire alarms, temperature alarms, fire-fighting equipment and sprinkler systems . Every types of mechanical device should be examined periodically by a competent person. Some Specific Health Hazards : Some Specific Health Hazards Hazards specific to the pharmaceutical industry result from exposure to the active drug such as- Hormones:For male workers, exposure to estrogens may give rise to -breast development For female workers, -menstrual disorders, -abnormal overgrowth of the endometrium and -excessive bleeding during menopause. Slide 30: Exposure of male workers to progestogen causes- -lack of sexual drive and testicular pain Exposure of female workers to androgens cause -menstrual and ovarian function disorders, -diminished fertility, -spontaneous abortions, and -symptoms of masculinity. Slide 31: Antibiotics The effects of occupational exposure to antibiotics can include:1) Allergic reactions: -itching and redness of the eyes, - runny nose, -skin rashes, -asthma, and - anaphylaxis. Vitamin deficiency: Different types of intestinal bacteria which absorb vitamins in the intestines. Slide 32: Fungal infections: - fungal infections of the skin and nails - vaginal yeast infections Toxic effects: Exposure to certain antibiotics may lead to development of some of the toxic side effects Slide 33: Described below are common adverse reactions to some specific antibiotics: Penicillin: -Symptoms are tightness in the chest, -asthmatic breathing, -dizziness, -swelling of the lips, tongue, or face, - edema of the lungs, heart failure -"black hairy tongue," -fungus infection, and -rectal itch. Slide 34: Tetracycline: -Modification of the bacteria of the intestines -drug resistance Drugs for Heart Disease -a severe pounding headache which is caused by the relaxation of the blood vessels within the skull -Headaches may be accompanied by a rapid heart beat and a flushed face. Slide 35: Tranquilizers: -In combination with alcohol, they may cause a person to lose consciousness and -In high doses, can lead to coma and death Antidepressants -Irregular heartbeat (cardiac arrhythmias) Safety regulations : Safety regulations The factories Act, 1948 is very comprehensive. It includes provision on cleanliness, ventilation, lighting and heating and the prevention of over crowding. The intention of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970 is ‘to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the nation safe and healthy working conditions and to preserve our human resources’. Two of the standards directly related to workers health and important in design work are: -toxic hazardous substances -occupational noise exposure Slide 37: Designer should design a plant by calculating the concentrations and the exposure time of plant personnel to toxic chemicals. The federal register should be examined closely for the list of materials declared hazardous, acceptable material exposure time and concentration before beginning the detailed design of a project. Hazardous impact to industrial workers : Hazardous impact to industrial workers Mortality. A 1988 study of 826 pharmaceutical workers found increased death risk from cancer and suicide. Morbidity. Many workers develop allergic reactions to medicines that involve bronchial sensitivity, asthma, and difficulty in breathing Asbestosis. The respiratory disease found most often among the members working at pharmaceutical plants is asbestosis, a disease which often leads to increased mortality. Reproductive Effects. One study of women found an increase in spontaneous abortion increasing with exposure to methylene chloride, benzene, estrogens, and toluene Accidental case: : Accidental case: A volatile mix of air and suspended dust caused the explosion and fire that killed four and hospitalized nine at the West Pharmaceutical Services plant in Kinston, N.C., on Jan. 29, 2003, according to investigators from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board (CSB). Resulted in an estimated loss of $150 million. Slide 40: From October 2004 until September 2005, OSHA issued 1,729 citations to the Chemical and Allied Products Industry (which includes the Pharmaceutical Industry) and fines totaling $1,560,644. The average worker incidence rate was 3.2 per 100 full-time employees in the Pharmaceutical Industry. During 1990, it was found that various types of water containing dye that are used in pharmaceuticals and other industries are frequently highly colored and may contain heavy metals such as copper and chromium. 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