The Polygraph : The Polygraph By: Rico T. Musong, R.C. Two types of Polygraph Instruments : Two types of Polygraph Instruments Analog polygraph instrument
Digital polygraph instrument The Beginnings of Polygraph : The Beginnings of Polygraph The Ink Polygraph
In 1906, we find the first mention
of a "polygraph" instrument. In an
article for the British Medical Journal, Lancet, Dr. James MacKenzie described his "Ink Polygraph."
A heart surgeon, Dr. Mackenzie used this polygraph when giving medical examinations. Although never used as an instrument for detecting deception, it is the first known instrument which contained the essential features of present day instruments. MacKenzie-Lewis "Polygraph" : MacKenzie-Lewis "Polygraph" It was originally developed for more serious blood circulation studies. The one was manufactured by the Cambridge and Paul Instrument Company in England (numbered L-9335). The clockwork mechanism for advancing the paper roll works well, as does the time marker, although this is missing it’s pen. The two pens which track the venous and arterial movements are also missing. More importantly, both of the "tambours" to which they connect are present and complete, although one lacks it’s diaphragm.
This medical instrument was key in the design of early polygraph instruments. Many of it’s details were reproduced in the early days of lie detection. Keeler's Third Instrument : Keeler's Third Instrument In 1924, Leonarde Keeler’s first handmade polygraph instrument, he called "the Emotograph," was destroyed in a fire at Keeler’s residence. Eloise Keeler reports that before the ashes were cold from this fire, Leonarde was busy designing a new instrument. Leonarde Keeler's Personal InstrumentWestern Electro Mechanical Prototype : Leonarde Keeler's Personal InstrumentWestern Electro Mechanical Prototype The American Polygraph Historical Society was gifted what is to be believed the prototype of the Western Electro Mechanical Company’s first polygraph. The instrument was built for Leonarde Keeler by William Scherer, and used by Leonarde Keeler himself. Over time, Keeler replaced it with many new instruments, but saved it for posterity. It was given to Leonard Harrelson, who became Keeler’s confidant and director of the Keeler Polygraph Institute until Keeler’s death in 1949 as a memento of their friendship. Leonard Harrelson presented it to the A.P.H.S. in 1996 for preservation. The Keeler #302Associated Research : The Keeler #302Associated Research Keeler Model #302The Model #301 replaced Leonard Keeler’s second polygraph invented in 1925. It was the first polygraph instrument manufactured for Keeler by Associated Research, Inc. of Chicago, Illinois. The Model #302 was introduced in the 1950's and added the "third channel," called a "psychogalvanometer" to the Keeler instrument.
This instrument was manufactured by 'Associated Research' of Chicago, Illinois and utilizes seven batteries, along with an AC power source. It is housed in a steel case with wrinkle finish and chromium trim. The cover is attached to the case with slip hinges allowing the cover to be removed. Keeler Model #302CAssociated Research : Keeler Model #302CAssociated Research The Keeler Model #302 had two modifications, the Model 302B, and Model 302C. This instrument to the left is a Model #302C.
It utilizes seven batteries, along with an AC power source. It is housed in a steel case with wrinkle finish and chromium trim. The cover is attached to the case with slip hinges allowing the cover to be removed.
The chart drive unit is powered by a synchronous motor at speeds of either six or twelve inches per minute. There are fthree recording pens, the lower pen and its associated controls comprise the pulse-blood pressure unit, while the longer pen records electrodermal variations. At the center of the panel is a standard sphygmomanometer, used as a guide to proper inflation of the blood pressure cuff. Keeler Model #304Associated Research : Keeler Model #304Associated Research In 1952, Russell Chatham was awarded a contract to perform polygraph examinations of employees of the Atomic Energy Facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. When awarded the contract, Chatham had Associated Research build instruments for him with his name on them.
They were two pen units, a cardiosphygmograph and a pneumograph with an Esterline Angus two speed sprocket drive kymograph. No more than 20 of these instruments were ever manufactured Keeler Model #6303Associated Research : Keeler Model #6303Associated Research The Keeler Model #6303 was a hybrid between the Keller Model #302 and the Model #6308, the first of the PaceSetter Series of polygraphs manufacturered by Associated Reasearch. It was a sleeker design than the Model #302, but still used vacumn tubes. Associated research replaced the stainless steel face with a blue acrylic faceplate.
It had three seperate channels. Pnuemograph, cardiograph, and galvanometer. It used a community inking system. Keeler Model #6308Associated Research : Keeler Model #6308Associated Research The Keeler Model #6308 went into production in the mid 1960's. It was the first of the "Pacesetter" series of polygraphs manufactured by Associated Research. It was a three channel polygraph instrument, designed to record physiological changes of "pulse rate, blood pressure, respiration and skin resistance." The Model 6308 shown here was manufactured by 'Keeler Polygraph' which was a division of 'Associated Research' of Chicago, Illinois. This instrument was used in the late 1960's, initially in the Military, and continued being used until the late 1970's in some States. The Model 6308 is one of the first instruments that can easily be changed from a desk mount to a portable unit without tools. The instruments three separate channels provide continuous recording of changes in heart rate and blood pressure, breathing rate and skin resistance. It was the first Keeler instrument to use transistors. The G.S.R. component consisted of a pair of finger electrodes, or a hand electrode connected to a input circuit of a direct couple solid-state amplifier with a balanced differential output, feeding the pens. Keeler Model #6318Associated Research : Keeler Model #6318Associated Research The Keeler Model #6318 went into production in the mid 1960's. It was a three channel polygraph instrument, designed to record physiological changes of "pulse rate, blood pressure, respiration and skin resistance."
It was identical to the Model 6308, but it could also be operated on battery power. It was equipped with an individual inking system and a sprocket drive kymograph. Keeler Model #6317Associated Research : Keeler Model #6317Associated Research The Keeler Polygraph Model 6317 shown here was manufactured by the 'Associated Research Company' of Chicago, Illinois. This unit was developed and placed into service during the later part of 1950, at a time when the most common use for the polygraph was in the field of business for employment screening. During the Korean War, this instrument was utilized by the C.I.A, and again in the early 1960' to polygraph Cubian Nationals to determine if they were spies. This instrument was designed to simulate a piece of luggage, not only to meet F.A.A. regulations but to prevent it from being easily detected throughout the espionage community. Keeler Model #6328Associated ResearchThe Arther II Polygraph : Keeler Model #6328Associated ResearchThe Arther II Polygraph Specially made for Dick Arther of the National Training Center in New York, and available only to graduates of his polygraph school, the Arther II is a modification of the Keeler Model #6308. It included a GSR component, and well as a stimulus marker.
This instrument, serial #41, was manufactured in 1970.
It was used between 1971 and 1974 by Louis Seibt, the newly trained polygraph examiner for the Fort Wayne, Indiana Police Department, and retired in 1974 with the purchase of a new Lafayette instrument. Keeler Model #6338Associated Research : Keeler Model #6338Associated Research The 'Keeler Polygraph' Model 6338 shown here was the first 'Plethysmic Polygraph' manufactured by 'Associated Research' of Chicago, Illinois in the early 1950's. This instrument is the first in the 'Pacesetter Series' which incorporated for the first time a integral photo/optical plethysmograph. The Model 6338 was introduced as a four channel instrument, which recorded simultaneously changes in relative blood pressure, heart rate, pulse wave amplitude, blood volume, oxygenation of the blood, respiration and electrical skin resistance. These reading are obtained by utilizing electronic and pneumatic monitoring. StoeltingCardio-Pneumo Polygraph : StoeltingCardio-Pneumo Polygraph This instrument was manufactured in the early 1950's. It was a self contained, portable instrument, weighing approximately 25 pounds. It was designed to record accurately blood pressures and respiration on a six inch graph which moved at a standard rate of speed. The pens were made of stainless steel, which made them practically a fool-proof recording pen because they were non-corrosive. The motor operated directly on 120 volt, 60 cycle current. The instrument was very sensitive and it's rugged construction offered many years of continued service. Stoelting's FirstDeceptograph : Stoelting's FirstDeceptograph Stoelting's First DeceptographManufactured in the early 1950's, this was the first of Stoelting's "Deceptograph" line. It was a three channel instrument consisting of a pneumograph, a cardiograph, and a galvanometer. It weighed 40 pounds and measured 22" long, 11" wide, and 14" high. It used jeweled bearings and precious metal divots for all recording pens. Each pen was equipped with a counterweight to delicately balance the pen over the paper. The kymograph ran a 6" or 12" per minute, selectable by the examiner. It ran on both 120 volt, 60 cycle current or batteries. DeceptographStoelting Model #22500 : DeceptographStoelting Model #22500 Manufactured between 1955 and 1960, the Stoelting Model #22500 “Deceptograph” was the latest in polygraph design for it’s time. It featured three modules; one pneumographic component, one cardiographic component, and a GSR component consisting of an amplifier and a galvanometer.
Another feature of this particular Deceptograph is a concealed microphone. You will find it on the pneumo module on the far right. Under this fake knob are four small holes to allow sound into the microphone concealed beneath the face plate on the instrument. DeceptographStoelting Model #22500 : DeceptographStoelting Model #22500 Like the instrument above, it has three components: a cardiogaph, a pneumograph, and a galvanometer. It has a three pen community inking system, and a six inch kymogaph.
Towards the bottom on the instrument are two large doors. The one on the left is a storage cabinet for the GSR, pneumo, and cardio attachments, as well as ink and other supplies. The compartment on the right is for the galvanometer. It is so large because the galvanometer was powered by large vacumn tubes. This instrument was used before the age of transistors. DeceptographStoelting Model #22500 : DeceptographStoelting Model #22500 Like the two Model #22500's above, this Model #22500 had a galvanometer powered by vacuum tubes, which required a thirty minute “warm-up” period before each test.
Weighing in at over forty pounds, this instrument was remembered by all who used it a similar to carrying around a large rock. The bulk of it’s weight came from the GSR unit.
This particular instrument has been modified to accept a three bottle capillary inking system in addition to the community inking system standard with this instrument. This modification was probably done by the examiner himself. The Truth Verifier : The Truth Verifier Affectionately known as the “Octopus,” this Stoelting Truth Verifier was altered to include six channels. It was used primarily as a laboratory instrument by psychologists. But it also used by polygraph examiners.
It is equipped with six separate recording modules utilizing two separate three pen community inking systems. It gained it’s nickname when one polygraph examiner claimed that you “had to have eight arms just to keep the pens centered.” The Bowling BallStoelting Interrograph : The Bowling BallStoelting Interrograph Touted as the smallest polygraph instrument ever made, this three pen Stoelting instrument has everything it’s larger brother’s had. Affectionately called “the Bowling Ball” by examiners due to it’s size and similarity to a bowling ball bag when carried.
Originally purchased in 1960 for $900 by Lincoln M. Zonn it was used between 1960 and 1985 when it was finally retired. It was designed by Joe Hager, the owner of the Stoelting Instrument Company due to the demands by polygraph examiners for a lighter instrument. It was discontinued because test subjects considered them “toys.” Less than 100 were manufactured.
An instrument similar to this was used to test Jack Ruby regarding the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald following the Kennedy assassination. The examiner was Phil Herndon of the FBI. He verified that Oswald was not part of a conspiracy to assassinate the President. Cardio-Pneumo Polygraph : Cardio-Pneumo Polygraph This two channel “cardio-pneumo polygraph” was introduced by the C. H. Stoelting Company in the mid 1950's to compete with Keeler’s Model 6308 three pen polygraph instrument.
Nicknamed the “Tackle Box” by examiners due to it’s resemblance to a fishing tackle box when closed, it was small and light to carry. This particular instrument was used by the McKesson-Robbins Drug Company in it’s Hawaii offices. StoeltingModel #: 22490X : StoeltingModel #: 22490X This instrument is a hybrid between a Model #22500 and a Model #22600. It is equipped with one pneumograph and one cardio graph. It has a six inch kymograph.The modules themselves appear to come from a Model #22500, but it encased in a Haliburton case similar to a Model# 22600. It is a custom made instrument. Early Stoelting Polygraph : Early Stoelting Polygraph This instrument was hand made by C. H. Stoelting after his retirement. Polygraph Examiners with specific requirements in instrumentation, contacted C. H. Stoelting after his retirement and requested hand made instruments made to their specifications. This instrument is enclosed in a large mahogany case, with a utility drawer in the lower portion to store attachments, ink, paper, and spare parts.
It contains two pneumographs, one cardiograph, and a stimulus marker. The inking system consisted on four small open reservoirs. It is a one of a kind instrument. It’s original owner is unknown. Emotional Stress MonitorStoelting Model #22600 : Emotional Stress MonitorStoelting Model #22600 The Stoelting Company pioneered many of the features that are regarded as standard today --modular construction, friction chart drive, simplified inking systems and rugged, yet sensitive recording sections.
The Stoelting Model #22600 was a pioneer in polygraph instrument construction. It contained three channels; a pneumograph, a cardiograph, and a galvanograph. Each was mounted in the face of the instrument in modules which could be easier removed for repairs or replacement. These modules were housed in a metal case equipped with a six inch kymograph, and community inking system. Stoelting Model #22608 : Stoelting Model #22608 The Model #22608 was introduced in 1966. It was identical to the Model #22600 with the exception of the second pneumographic module. It introduced a kymograph with eight inch paper. A real improvement over the six inch paper before. This simple but rugged instrument soon became the favorite of U.S. Government examiners.
This particular Stoelting 22608 was the primary instrument of Terry R. Tanner. It has been equipped with ink loaded pens which allowed an examiner to use these older model instruments well into the 1980's by replacing the need for the messy community inking systems. Stoelting Model #22645 : Stoelting Model #22645 This model “Emotional Stress Monitor Polygraph” consists of an individual inking system, two pneumographic modules, a Cardiographic module, a GSR module, and an additional electronically enhanced fifth module.
This fifth module is second from the bottom and is user selectable for either a CAM system or a second Cardio channel. Centering and Sensitivity adjustments are made on the insert next to the GSR sensitivity plate. Stoelting Multigraph : Stoelting Multigraph In the early 1950's, there was a trend in the polygraph industry to move the polygraph instrument into the laboratory. Examiners began to wear white lab coats.
The Multigraph was created to meet the needs of these examiners. A large desk top model, consisting of two pneumographs, a galvanometer, and two cardiographs, it looked like a piece of laboratory equipment. It quicky fell out of favor in the polygraph community due to it’s lack of mobility. Arther IV Polygraph : Arther IV Polygraph The Arther IV Polygraph was the fourth model built for Dick Arther by various manufacturers for sale. Built between 1972 and 1982, it featured five channels; two pneumographs, one cardiograph, one galvanograph, and the fifth channel which was an event marker.
Dick Arther asked that the event marker be added to his instruments after seeing one on a Berkeley Psychograph. The event marker is the channel at the top of the module console. Executive PolygraphStoelting Model #22532 : Executive PolygraphStoelting Model #22532 A three pen portable polygraph instrument. It was manufactured between 1965 and 1970. It’s uniqueness lies in the fact that it will run on re-chargeable batteries. With it’s built in battery charger, battery power meter, and it’s Samsonite Attache Case, it allowed the traveling polygraph examiner to truly take his instrument anywhere.
It was a favorite instrument for testing gold miners and diamond mine workers as it could be taken right into the mine. PolyscribeStoelting Model #22770 : PolyscribeStoelting Model #22770 Introduced in 1974 and discontinued in 1979, the “Polyscribe” was touted as the “Ultimate Polygraph.” It featured dual functionality by each of four modules that were capable of handling both pneumographic or electrical inputs. Before this innovation of selectable functions, each module in a polygraph instrument had a specific purpose.
The GSR system incorporated “Solid State” components which allowed more circuitry below the circuit board to enhance the GSR functionality. Stoelting UltraScribe : Stoelting UltraScribe Introduced in 1979, the “Ultrascribe” is still Stoelting’s top of the line analog polygraph. The original Ultrascribe was a four channel, all manual instrument as depicted here. It allows the maximum in flexibility for the modern polygraph examiner.
This instrument had two pneumographs, a galvanometer, and one cardiograph. This is an all mechanical instrument. UltraScribeStoelting Model #80500 : UltraScribeStoelting Model #80500 Introduced in 1979, the “Ultrascribe” is still Stoelting’s top of the line analog polygraph. The second edition of the Ultrascibe was electronically enhanced. it allows the maximum in flexibility for the modern polygraph examiner. It can handle up to five separate, selectable modules, including a CAM function, movement sensor function, and stimulus marker function.
This instrument is still the top of the line in analog polygraph instruments offered by the Stoelting Company. It is an all electronic instrument. Executive UltraScribeStoleting Model #81500 : Executive UltraScribeStoleting Model #81500 The same polygraph instrument as the Ultrascribe above, except housed in a small briefcase for the polygraph examiner “on-the-go.” It can handle up to five separate, selectable modules, including a CAM function, movement sensor function, and stimulus marker function.
This particular instrument is equipped with a “GSR Meter.” This meter was to be used during interrogations to alert the interrogator to a subject’s concern about an issue. The meter, consisting of a small blue light bulb, plugged into the GSR RCA jack. As the subject's galvanic response changed, the bulb would glow brighter or dimmer. It was thought that this meter would help improve the quality of the control and relevant questions. Early Lafayette PolygraphModel #7603-2 : Early Lafayette PolygraphModel #7603-2 This particular instrument is a four channel, all mechanical, polygraph. It features one pneumograph, two galvanometers, and one cardiograph. It was enclosed in a light mahogony case with white bakelite finish. The presence of two galvanometers is very unusual.
The cardiograph featured a readout dial that was installed directly into the module itself, rather than being installed on the left side of the instrument. It also came with a mahogany case to hold accessories and module attachments. Lafayette Model #76056Electro - Cardio Polygraph : Lafayette Model #76056Electro - Cardio Polygraph The Lafayette Model 76056 displayed here was first introduced by Lafayette Instrument Company of Lafayette, Indiana in 1972. The 76056 was considered to be the most popular instrument introduced at the time, with double pneumographs, G.S.R., Electro-Cardio, and a top-mounted pnuematic stimulus marker. The mechanical pneumos featured stainless steel shafts with a sapphire olive ring, and bombe jewel bearings for increased sensitivity. The solid state G.S.R. on the Model 76056 is linear from 1 to 1,000,000 ohms in automatic or manual mode. The newly designed pens had a increased sweep of 5.75 inches. The newly designed electro-cardio provided quality records at low cuff pressure. This instrument also incorporated a precision friction paper drive, pen lifter bar and paper well which permitted easy chart replacement.
Lafayette Instrument Company boasted that their Model 76056 was very modular, which allowed for easy field replacement components. This polygraph instrument was lightweight, and enclosed in a sturdy Haliburton case,
which also had in the case accessory storage. Lafayette PolygraphModel #76057 : Lafayette PolygraphModel #76057 The Model 76057 was introduced in the early 1960's. It was equipped with Lafayette’s patented “Electro-Cardio” channel. It was also the first polygraph instrument to include an ohmmeter on the galvanograph to give exact reading of resistance. It is believed that the readings on the ohmmeter could indicate the absence or presence of drugs in the examinee.
It came equipped with two pneumographs, one cardiograph, and one galvanograph channel, housed in a metal case equipped with an eight inch kymograph. LafayetteModel #761-76X : LafayetteModel #761-76X This instrument is a four channel, all mechancial polygraph with two pneumographs, one galvanometer, and one cardiograph. The cardiograph is selectable between a cardiograph and a pneumograph. It is housed in a black brief case for easy portability, and has a stainless steel face plate.
It is also equipped with an eight inch kymograph. Lafayette Mini-GraphModel #761-061INK21 : Lafayette Mini-GraphModel #761-061INK21 Lafayette PentographModel # 760-560 : Lafayette PentographModel # 760-560 Manufactured in 1980, this Lafayette Instrument featured two manual pneumographic modules, a GSR module, and one manual cardiographic module. It was later upgraded with an electronic cardiographic module.
It features many of the refinements of the next generation of polygraph instruments. With little if any change to the instrument itself, Pentograph owners were able to take advantage of later refinements in Lafayette Instruments due to interchangeability of the Lafayette Instrument’s design. Lafayette Diplomat 1Model #761-76LE : Lafayette Diplomat 1Model #761-76LE The Diplomat Series is the "briefcase" version of Lafayette's instruments. Housed in a small brief case, it was easily carried by examiners on-the-go. This particular Diplomat is a four channel, all mechanical instrument, featuring two pneumographs, one galvanometer and one cardiograph. It could be modified to hold one more module.
In it's lid is a calibration unit that examiners could use to calibrate each module before use. It is also equipped with n eight inch kymograph. The Argenbright IILafayette Model #761-76G : The Argenbright IILafayette Model #761-76G The Argenbright II was housed in a brief case for easy portability. It was manufactured by the Lafayette Instrument Company specifically for the Argenbright Polygrah School graduates in Florida.
This particular instrument is a four channel, all mechancial instrument, consisting of two pneumographs, one galvanometer, and one cardiograph. It it's lid is a calibration unit. Lafayette AmbassadorModel #: 760-58G : Lafayette AmbassadorModel #: 760-58G The Ambassador Series of Lafayette polygraphs came after the Pentograph Series. This particular instrument is a five channel all mechancial polygraph with two pneumographs, one galvanometer, one cardiograph, and one stimulus marker. Lafayette AmbassadorModel #: 761-65GA : Lafayette AmbassadorModel #: 761-65GA This particular instrument is a five channel all electronic polygraph. It has two pneumographs, one galvanometer, one cardiograph, and optional module which was user selectable for either cardiograph, galvanometer, or pneumograph.
This model does not use any ink. It is a thermal model. The tips of the pens are heated by the instrument and leave tracing on special thermal paper. Lafayette FactfinderModel #761-95GA : Lafayette FactfinderModel #761-95GA Manufactured in 1985, this Lafayette Instrument represented the top of the line for the Lafayette Instrument Company. It features five fully electronic modules, plus an electronic stimulus marker. In it’s lid was a Polygraph Calibration Unit. This unit did support additional sensors, including motion sensors, CAMS and a Thumb Transducer. A unique feature of this instrument was the dual sphygmomanometers, allowing an examiner to run dual cardio tracings.
It was used as the primary polygraph instrument by Terry J. Ball of Ball & Gillespie Polygraph between 1985 and 1995. During this time approximately 5000 polygraph examinations were conducted with this instrument. Lafayette FactfinderModel #762-96GA : Lafayette FactfinderModel #762-96GA Manufactured in 1987, this Lafayette Instrument represents the top of the line for Lafayette instruments. It features five all electronic modules, plus an electronic stimulus marker. Two pneumographs, one galvanometer, and two cardiographs.
It was used as the primary polygraph instrument by the Internal Affairs Investigations Division of the Oregon Department of Corrections for ten years. Lafayette Heart Rate MonitorModel #:77068 : Lafayette Heart Rate MonitorModel #:77068 Designed as an attachment for Lafayette Diplomat and Factfinder series, this small instrument allowed the examiner to monitor heart rate acitivty during a polygraph examination.
The Heart Rate Monitor, when used in conjunction with any electronic multiple function amplifier, is designed to be used as an independent monitoring device that produces a permanent recording of increases and decreases in the subject’s heart rate. An LED light flashes synchronously with each beat of the heart. A 5 beat-per-minute calibration push button is provided and also serves as a battery test button during operation. A mode selector is available for recording either beat-to-beat or average heart rate. A 9V battery is included. Lafayette PLE CouplerModel #:76599 : Lafayette PLE CouplerModel #:76599 The PLE (Plethysmograph) Coupler is designed for use with any electronic multiple function amplifier to give the examiner the option to select the time constant which provides the most useful recording with each subject. A total of four capacitively coupled (AC) modes are available with time constants of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 seconds. A (DC) mode is also available with controls for balance and trace restore. Lafayette Power PackModel #: 76754 : Lafayette Power PackModel #: 76754 This device is an external power pack for Lafayette instruments. It has a re-chargeable battery which was capable of supplying power to a polygraph instrument for approximately four hours. It took up to sixteen hours to receive a full charge. It is encased in a mahogany case. Rare and Unique Polygraph Instruments.......Berkeley Psychograph : Rare and Unique Polygraph Instruments.......Berkeley Psychograph The Berkeley Psychograph is a three channel polygraph instrument first introduced in 1926 by Clarence D. Lee and Sons of San Rafael, California. Clarence D. Lee was a Captain with the Berkeley Police Department. Captain Lee tutored under Leonard Keeler, and August Vollmer, recognized as the “fathers” of modern polygraph. He retired in 1937 to manufacture polygraph instruments for police and private examiners.
It has three channels; a pneumograph, a cardiograph, and a stimulus marker. Although functionally similar to Keeler’s instruments at the time, C.D. Lee altered the blood pressure unit to make the instrument more sensitive to changes in pulse and blood pressure. Housed in a mahogany case with Bakelite finish, it was the favorite of police examiners. Darrow Behavioral ResearchPhotopolygraph : Darrow Behavioral ResearchPhotopolygraph In the early 1930's, C.W. Darrow developed his Photopolygraph. Manufactured by the C.H. Stoelting Company it retailed for $999. It had five channels; pneumograph, cardiograph, galvanograph, a stimulus marker, and one additional channel that could be used to record either an abdominal respiration, a gastrointestinal balloon, a plethysmograph, or carotid or radial pulse.
It’s recording system was unique in that all tracings are recording on photographic paper. It was used by the U.S. Bureau of Prisons at Lewisburg and the Narcotic Farm in Kentucky. The Reid Polygraph : The Reid Polygraph In 1945, John E. Reid of Reid and Associates in Chicago, Illinois developed what he called the “Reid Polygraph.” Besides recording blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and GSR, this new polygraph instrument recorded muscular activity in the forearms, thighs, and feet. These muscular movements were picked up from metal bellows under the arms and seat of the polygraph chair.
This instrument was the first instrument to use a movement sensor to detect subject movement during the examination. The examiner in this picture is John E. Reid. It was manufactured by the C.H. Stoelting Company and was available only to examiners who were trained by John E. Reid and Associates. The Cleve Backster SpecialC.H. Stoelting Company : The Cleve Backster SpecialC.H. Stoelting Company The components for this unique polygraph instrument are from a Stoelting Model #22500. The case, made of plywood, was hand made for Cleve Backster by a cabinet maker in New York around 1960. This is one of six such instruments that Cleve Backster used to test audience reaction to television shows for a commercial advertising agency.
Cleve Backster reports that the six instruments were laid side by side in a 3 X 2 matrix, and used to record emotional responses of subjects as they watched commercials to judge their effectiveness.
Cleve sold it to Jim Allen of the Spokane County Sheriff’s Department upon his graduation from the Backster/Arthur Polygraph School in 1961 for $600. Jim Allen used the instrument until 1963. The other five copies of this instrument have been lost. Narco Bio-Systems, Inc.Physiograph CPM : Narco Bio-Systems, Inc.Physiograph CPM This instrument is actually a medical instrument capable of monitoring five separate physiological channels. The modules on the face of the instrument are interchangeable and individually configurable. The fifth channel is a side mounted Electrocardiograph.
The five separate channels can be recorded on either paper or transparencies. The transparencies can then be projected using a common overheard projector.
Little is known of it’s use as a polygraph instrument. It is believed that the City of Windsor, Ontario tried to use this instrument as a polygraph. Standing three feet tall and weighing over three hundred pounds, this would have been a handful for any examiner. Voice Stress Analyzers : Voice Stress Analyzers DEKTOR Psychological Stress EvaluatorModel # 101 : DEKTOR Psychological Stress EvaluatorModel # 101 Analog or computerized Voice Stress Analyzers are, at best, about as accurate as the flip of a coin.
Manufactured in the early to middle 1970's, the Dektor Psychological Stress Evaluator Model #101 was the top of the line in stress evaluators.
It’s primary attraction was it’s manufacturer’s contention that the instrument could be used with little or no training, thus avoiding lengthy polygraph schools and tuition costs. It fell out of favor in the 1980's when studies indicated that it’s accuracy was about the same as a “flip of the coin.” Voice Stress AnalyzerMark IX-P : Voice Stress AnalyzerMark IX-P Trying once again to capitalize on a market they desperately wanted to invade, Communication Control Systems, Inc. came out with it’s top of the line “Voice Stress Analyzer.” Using a lot of puffery, they touted the instrument to be as accurate as a polygraph instrument with a third of it’s cost and training time.
As large as a small suitcase, one of it’s chief advantages was it’s secrecy. It could be used to tape record a telephone conversation for analysis later. After all, what could be easier that interrogating suspects over the phone and using this instrument to zero in on a culprit. The "Lie Detecto" MachineManning Manufacturing : The "Lie Detecto" MachineManning Manufacturing Manufactured by Manning Manufacturing Company in 1961, this is a simply galvanometer that was made into a toy. It has three possible results: (1) “Are you Kidding;” (2)“Little Whopper;” and (3) "Big Whopper.” It has two adjustment knobs, one for sensitivity and one for “adjustment.” Although just a toy, it is probably as accurate at the two voice stress machines shown above. The "Truth Quest" Lie DetectorSharper Image : The "Truth Quest" Lie DetectorSharper Image Using some of the same circuitry as the two voice stress machines shown above, this miniature “lie detector" is marketed by Sharper Image. It has a series of colored light on the left side starting with green, progressing to yellow, and ending in red. This device is left on a desk in front of the person being questioned and depending on the number of the colored lights a subject’s response elicits, it is supposed to determine trughfullness or deception. It simply doesn’t work. The"Shocking Liar" Truth DetectorPaladone Industries. : The"Shocking Liar" Truth DetectorPaladone Industries. This portable lie detector is about as big as an inverted soup bowl. It is manufactutrer by Paladone in China. A test subject puts his hand into the harness on the top of the device. Once turned on, a series of lights revolve around the device for several seconds after the subject answers a question. A series of colored lights progressing from green to read light up on the front of the device to tell the “examiner” if the subject is lying. One interesting thing about this device, if it detects what it believes to be a “lie,” it sends a rather uncomfortable shock through the hand. There are two levels of pain selectable, “Low” and “High.” De-FIB-ulator "Lie Detector" : De-FIB-ulator "Lie Detector" One look at the read out on this "portable lie detector" should tell you that it can't be taken seriously. It manufacturers tout it as a handheld voice-tension detector which measures degrees of vocal vibration to determine if someone is telling the truth.
Ask your subject three easy "yes" or "no" questions. De-FIB-ulator records the answers, establishing a baseline reading. Then, ask serious yes/no questions. If the subject isn't responding honestly, the onscreen face of "Demonochio" grows a long nose and horns.
Purported accuracy is 65 percent. And it even works with cell phones!