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See all Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: Week 10 12.6.2010 – 18.6.2010 Training& Development Slide 2: Wisdom In future, the success of enterprises ‘ll depend upon the revolutionary training and development system in human resource management.” “As we live and work in the world of knowledge and skill, every human activity need up-to-date knowledge and required skills to perform it. There is nothing training can not do, Nothing is above its reach, It can turn bad morals to Good, It can destroy bad principle and create Good Onsite can lift men to angel ship Slide 3: Misconception About Training Training is not valuable Training is an expense, not an investment Anybody can be a trainer The training department is a good place to put poor performers Training is the responsibility of the trainers Slide 4: Organization Development Planned, systematic change process that uses behavioral science knowledge and techniques to improve companies’ effectiveness by improving relationships and increasing learning and problem-solving capabilities Slide 5: The process of ensuring that new interventions such as training practices are accepted and used by employees and management Change Management Slide 6: Change Management Steps 1. Overcoming Resistance To Change 2. Managing The Transition 3. Shaping Political Dynamics 4. Using Training To Explain New Tasks Slide 7: Change Management Interventions Survey Feedback Process Consultation Group Interventions Slide 8: Future Trends That Will Affect Training The use of new technologies for training delivery will increase Demand for training for virtual work arrangements will rise Emphasis on capture and storage and use of intellectual capital will increase Companies will rely on learning management systems, integration with business processes, and real-time learning Training will focus on business needs and performance Training departments will develop partnerships and will outsource Training and development will be viewed more from a change model perspective Slide 9: New Technologies& Training, Development Cost of these new technologies will decrease Companies can use technology to better prepare employees to service customers and generate new business Technology will allow training to be delivered to contingent, decentralized employees in a timely, effective manner Training costs will be substantially reduced through use of new technologies Technologies allow trainers to build into training many of the desirable features of a learning environment Slide 10: Training and Development Definitions Heart of a continuous effort designed to Improve employee competency and organizational performance Slide 11: Training Definition Training is a process by which people improve their knowledge, skills and attitudes and use them to enhance their performance on the job Slide 12: Training Definition Planned efforts designed to facilitate the acquisition of relevant skills, Knowledge and attitude by Organizational members. Slide 13: Training Vs Development Definition Training – Teaching operational and technical skills to do the job for which an individual is hired Development- Teaching managers and professionals the skills needed for the present and future jobs Slide 14: WHY Training& Development It reduces company dependence on hiring new workers. Opening in the organization through HR planning are more likely to be filled internally effective way in Employee Obsolescence effective way in Technological change promotion & transfers also show employees that they have a career not just a job. Employee feel a greater commitment to the firm. effective way in International & domestic workforce diversity effective way in Technological change Slide 15: WHY Training& Development Improves quality Reduces constant supervision Helps them achieve better co-operation Reduces wastage and spoilage Creates greater loyalty to the organization Moulds employees’ attitude Slide 16: Training Vs Teaching Teaching: Is about educating people, sharing wisdom, making people more knowledgeable Training: Is about development and application of knowledge, skills and attitudes for achieving specific objectives Slide 17: Training, Development & Education Training Development Education Building the ability of the individual to interpret knowledge. Usually linked to a formal qualification Linked to the overall improvement of the employee’s knowledge, skill and attitude and the resultant behavior over a longer period Basic skill enhancement specific to a job or task with immediate or short term application Slide 18: Responsible for Training Top Mgmt HR Dept Supervisors implement and apply development procedure plans, establishes and evaluates Frames the Training policy Employees provide feedback, revision and suggestions Slide 19: Quality – Training and Development Training objectives are tied to organization’s business objectives Training is modular so it can be adapted to workplace schedules. Training is tailored to trainee needs and learning styles. Training structure allows employees to learn at their own pace. Trainees are provided regular, ongoing feedback concerning their progress while in the training programmed. Slide 20: Strategic Management – Training and Development Employees need to know why they should learn Employees need meaningful training content Employees need to have opportunities to practice Employees need feedback Employees learn by observing, experiencing, and interacting with others Employees need to commit training content to memory Employees need the training program to be properly coordinated and arranged Slide 21: Then why is training often neglected? Urgency of need Training time Costs Employee turnover Short-term worker Diversity of worker Kinds of jobs (simple-complex) Not knowing exactly what you want your people to do and how Slide 22: Training Cycle Assess Needs Assess training needs Organization Analysis Job&& task analysis personal analysis Develop training objective Design& Develop Design& develop Training, applying Knowledge of learning Principle: Select Training Method Develop Detailed content Develop Training Material Pilot Test Training Program Train Trainers Deliver Training Evaluate Evaluate Training Where Object Met? Reaction. Learning. Behavior. Result Modify& Improve Program Slide 23: Training Cycle Needs Analysis/Assessment Goal of needs analysis Summary of Needs Analysis Identify training needs Organizational analysis Job and task analysis Individual analysis Training Objectives Slide 24: Training Cycle Needs Analysis/Assessment 3 Levels of Needs Analysis: Organizational analysis: What are the training needs of the organization? What training will support the organization’s strategy? Example: Internal growth strategy (growth from new products or new markets) would be supported by training in: Creative thinking New product development Understanding & evaluating potential new markets Technical competence in jobs Example: What are the training needs for other strategies? Low-cost leadership, focused (niche) concentration, external growth (mergers & acquisitions), downsizing & divesting Slide 25: Training Cycle Needs Analysis/Assessment 3 Levels of Needs Analysis (more): Organizational analysis (more) Use benchmarks of organizational health & success to identify training needs General examples: Headcount Productivity Costs Quality Specific examples for an airline: On-time rates Lost baggage rates Employee injury rates Slide 26: Training Cycle Needs Analysis/Assessment 3 Levels of Needs Analysis (more): Job and task analysis: What are the training needs of each job in the organization? Examine the job Analysis : What tasks & duties are performed by each job? For each task: Do new hires already know how to perform the task or will they have to be trained? (Helps to identify training needs) What are the consequences of performing the task incorrectly? (Helps to set training priorities) Can the task be learned on the job, or should it be taught off the job? (Helps to identify training methods) Slide 27: Training Cycle Needs Analysis/Assessment 3 Levels of Needs Analysis (more): Individual analysis: What are the training needs of each individual employee in the organization? Examine each employee’s performance appraisal Do certain employees, or groups of employees, have job performance that might be improved by training that is cost-effective? Slide 28: Training Cycle Needs Analysis/Assessment Training Objectives: Use the 3 levels of needs analysis to establish the training objectives for the training program Training objectives answer the question: What will employees be able to do as a consequence of the training? Make the training objectives specific, concrete, & measurable Example for a bank teller training program in detecting counterfeit currency: Identify counterfeit currency correctly 100% of the time Example for a bartender training program on underage consumption: Check customer’s age, refuse service, and report attempts at underage consumption correctly 100% of the time Slide 29: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Need Assessment Training & Development Objectives Evaluation Criteria Program Content Learning Principles Evaluation Actual Program Skills , Knowledge, Ability of workers Slide 30: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program 3 Stages of Learning: Design the training program to move employees up to Stage 3 Stage 1: Declarative knowledge (cognitive phase) Learn facts & concepts High demands on memory & attention Performance is slow & halting Errors are common Stage 2: Knowledge compilation (associative phase) Facts & behaviors get “chunked” into a routine Performance begins to improve Reduced concentration is required Slide 31: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program 3 Stages of Learning (more): Stage 3: Procedural knowledge (autonomous phase) Performance becomes automatic Performance is fluid & correct Little conscious concentration is required But if we want to design our training program to move the trainees up to Stage 3, how do we do that? The answer involves putting together the following concepts Slide 32: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Preconditions for learning: Design the training program to satisfy 2 key preconditions: Trainee readiness: What do the trainees already know? We want to start the training program at the right level We need to find out what they already know Example: Does our newly hired bank teller know how to count money? Design the training program to build on what the trainees already know Slide 33: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Preconditions for learning (more): Trainee motivation: Are the trainees motivated to learn? Involve employees in the needs analysis Show trainees how the training will enhance their job performance & their careers Use goal setting: Establish specific, concrete, & measurable training goals Make the goals difficult but achievable Set intermediate & end goals Build strong self-efficacy expectations: beliefs about success Persuasion: “You can do it!” Modeling: show trainees successful previous trainees Enactive mastery: lead trainees to early success in training Slide 34: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Practice: “practice makes perfect” One critical key to moving to Stage 3 of learning is providing the trainees with the right kinds of practice Take into consideration the task complexity: Simple task: practice the entire task Complex task: Break the complex task into simple pieces Practice each of the simple pieces As performance improves, combine the simple pieces and practice the entire complex task Distributed practice sessions work better than a massed practice session: spread the practice sessions out over multiple days with sleep between the practice sessions Over learning is good: keep practicing well beyond the point of correct performance of the task Slide 35: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Knowledge of results: feedback is important Provide lots of feedback & encouragement, especially early in training Helps build self-efficacy expectations Guide the trainee to correct performance As performance improves, raise the performance level required for positive feedback Encourage the trainee to strive for better performance Show trainees how to evaluate their own performance Allows trainees to determine for themselves how they’re doing Gradually shift from trainer-provided feedback to the trainee’s own self-generated feedback Prepares the trainee to correctly use the training on the job without the close supervision of the trainers in the training program Slide 36: Overcome interferences: identify& resolve things that might interfere with learning Distractions in the training environment Lighting problems Noise problems Temperature problems, etc. Bad habits that the trainees bring with them into training Identify the bad habits of the trainees early in training Correct the bad habits early in training so that the trainees practice the correct way, and not the wrong way Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Slide 37: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Transfer of training: structure the training program to enhance the transfer of training from the training program back to the job Make the training setting similar to the work setting Use the same equipment & processes in training that are used on the job Teach both tasks & principles Both how to do the task and why it is done that way Over learning is good: provide lots of practice Use a variety of job-relevant examples Slide 38: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Transfer of training (more): Show the trainees the relevancy of the training to their jobs Build positive self-efficacy expectations Ask trainees to develop their own action plan with goals for how they will use the training on their jobs Relapse prevention: ask trainees to anticipate what might cause them to relapse to their bad habits, and to develop their own plans to avoid the relapse Slide 39: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Transfer of training (more): Provide pre-planned opportunities for trainees to use their new skills on their jobs Supervisors and co-workers should support the new behaviors back on the job Train a team together as a team Give homework assignments that require trainees to apply what they are learning in training to their jobs Provide reminders (job aids) for trainees to take back with them to their jobs Slide 40: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Training Methods: decide which training method to use On-the-job training (OJT): training is at the actual work site using the actual work equipment Advantages: Enhances the transfer of training: the training setting and the work setting are the same May reduce costs: avoid the cost of a separate training facility Enhances trainee motivation: job-relevancy of training is more obvious to the trainees Disadvantages: May be disruptive to normal operations May have more distractions that interfere with learning May have safety concerns Slide 41: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Training Methods (more): Off-the-job training: training takes place off the job at a training facility designed for training Advantages: Avoids disruptions to normal operations Minimizes distractions Avoids safety concerns Disadvantages: Transfer of training may be more difficult due to differences between the training setting and the work setting Costs may be higher due to the cost of the training facility Trainee motivation may be reduced because the job-relevancy of the training is not as obvious Slide 42: Training Cycle Design & Develop Training Program Training Methods (more): Off-the-job training (more): Off-the-job training techniques: Lectures Discussions Cases Role-plays Simulations Example: How should we set up a training program for newly hired bank tellers to teach them how to do their job? On-the-job or off-the-job? Slide 43: Training Cycle Deliver the Training Deliver the training that was planned Slide 44: Training Cycle Evaluation The process for collecting, analyzing, and reporting information useful to decision makers in selecting amongst alternatives. The process and means of evaluating training and development should be decided at the time that learning objective are established. Slide 45: Training Cycle Evaluation The process of determining, to what extent the( training) objectives are actually being realized. The process of providing feedback to trainers about the effectiveness of their training. Slide 46: Steps in the evaluation of T&D Evaluation Criteria Pretest Trained or Developed workers Posttest Transfer to the job Follow-up Studies Slide 47: Why Evaluation Is the training program effective in achieving its goals. If not, what are the deficiencies in the program. How can the deficiencies be remedied? Slide 48: Evaluating Human Resource Development Participant’s opinions (reaction) Extent of learning (learning) Behavioral change (behavior) Accomplishment of T&D objectives (outcomes or result) Slide 49: Evaluating Human Resource Development& Training The Reaction by trainees to the training content and process. The Knowledge or learning acquired through the training experience. Change in Behavior that result from the training. Turnover, fewer accidents or less absenteeism Measurable Results or Improvements in the individuals or the organization, such as lower. Effective criteria used to evaluate Training focus on outcomes: Slide 50: Participant’s opinions (Reaction) Organizations evaluate the reaction level of trainees by conducting interviews or by administering questionnaires to the trainees A reaction-level measure could be gathered by having the managers complete a survey that asked them to rate the value of the training, the style of the instructors, and the usefulness of the training to them. However, the immediate reaction may measure only how much the people liked the training rather than how it benefited them. Slide 51: Extent of learning (learning) Learning levels can be evaluated by measuring how well trainees have learned facts, ideas, concepts, theories, and attitudes. Tests on the training material are commonly used for evaluating learning and can be given both before and after training to compare scores. To evaluate training courses at some firms, test results are used to determine how well the courses have provided employees with the desired content. Slide 52: Behavioral change (behavior) Evaluating training at the behavioral level involves: (1) measuring the effect of training on job performance through interviews of trainees and their coworkers (2) observing job performance. Even if behaviors do change, the results that management desires may not be obtained Behavior is more difficult to measure than reaction and learning. Slide 53: Accomplishment of T&D objectives (outcomes or result) Employers evaluate results by measuring the effect of training on the achievement of organizational objectives The difficulty with measuring results is pinpointing whether it actually was training that caused the changes in results. Other factors may have had a major impact as well. Because results such as productivity, turnover, quality, time, sales, and costs are relatively concrete, this type of evaluation can be done by comparing records before and after training Slide 54: Home Work Establish Training & Development Policy and Procedure You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.