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Premium member Presentation Transcript Marine Fisheries: Management and Proposed Solutions: Marine Fisheries: Management and Proposed Solutions by Wynn W. Cudmore, Ph.D. Northwest Center for Sustainable Resources DUE# 0757239 This project supported in part by the National Science Foundation. Opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Foundation.Traditional fisheries management: Traditional fisheries management “The application of scientific knowledge to the problems of providing the optimum yield of fishery products, whether stated in tons of commercial products or in hours of angling pleasure ” Everhart and Youngs, 1975 Maximum sustainable yield Quotas (Total Allowable Catches) Legislation Closures Gear restrictionsPowerPoint Presentation: NCSRPowerPoint Presentation: NCSRThe Challenges of MSY: The Challenges of MSY Estimating population size is difficult MSY assumes exponential growth MSY is a single-species approach and does not take ecosystem effects into account Societal pressure to overestimate stock size and underestimate fishing effortLegislation that Influences Fisheries: Legislation that Influences Fisheries Magnuson-Stevenson Fishery Conservation and Management Act (1976) Sustainable Fisheries Act (1996) National Environmental Policy Act (1970) Endangered Species Act (1973) Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972)PowerPoint Presentation: NEFSCExclusive Economic Zone of the U.S.: Exclusive Economic Zone of the U.S. NOAAClosures – an example: Closures – an example Closed areas in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank implemented in the early 1990s to protect Atlantic cod NOAA FisheriesGeorges Bank haddock catches and spawning stock biomass: Georges Bank haddock catches and spawning stock biomass Data from Brodziak, J., et al. 2006 1950 1960 1970 1980 2000 1990Fishing Effort Along Closure Margins in the Gulf of Maine: Fishing Effort Along Closure Margins in the Gulf of Maine From 2001-03: 42% of total U.S. haddock catch was within 0.6 mi. of closed areas 73% within 3.1 mi. Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal OceansSea scallops on Georges Bank: Sea scallops on Georges Bank NOAA Fisheries – Northeast Fisheries Science Center NOAA Fisheries - Chantell Royer Area ClosedGear Restrictions: Gear Restrictions Gear type Mesh size Hook size and number Numbers of traps or pots NEFSC Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Marine Observer ProgramTraditional fisheries management: Traditional fisheries management Maximum sustainable yield Quotas (Total Allowable Catches) Legislation Closures Gear restrictionsMarket-based Solutions: Market-based Solutions Certification Consumer-based solutions Purchase of fishing rights Aquaculture Increased use of underutilized species Reduce government subsidiesCertification of Seafood: Certification of Seafood Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) 52 fisheries certified: North Sea herring Australian mackerel Oregon pink shrimp Baja California red rock lobster Marine Stewardship Council / Marine PhotobankConsumer-based solutions: Consumer-based solutionsPurchase of fishing rights: Purchase of fishing rights Governments may buy out willing fishing permit holders to reduce fishing effort NOAA Fisheries - Robert BrighamAquaculture: Aquaculture Fish farming has the potential to reduce the pressure on wild-caught fish Farmed organisms that do not consume fish meal are most sustainable Danilo Cedrone / UNFAO / NOAATrends in World Aquaculture Production 1970 - 2004: Trends in World Aquaculture Production 1970 - 2004 Aquaculture now accounts for 43% of total fish production UN FAO State of FisheriesTop ten species groups in global aquaculture production - 2004: Top ten species groups in global aquaculture production - 2004 Production (millions of metric tons) Carp and relatives 18.3 Oysters 4.6 Clams, cockles, etc. 4.1 Misc. freshwater fish 3.7 Shrimp and prawns 2.5 Salmon, trout and smelt 2.0 Mussels 1.9 Tilapia and relatives 1.8 Scallops 1.2 Misc. marine molluscs 1.1Increased use and marketing of underutilized species: Increased use and marketing of underutilized species Silver hake = “whiting” Slimeheads = “orange roughy” Patagonian toothfish = “Chilean sea bass” Deep sea angler = “monkfish” Silver hake = “whiting” Slimeheads = “orange roughy” Patagonian toothfish = “Chilean sea bass” Deep sea angler = “monkfish” Sascha Regmann / Project Blue Sea / Marine Photobank (top image) © Gavin Parsons / www.gavinparsons.co.uk / Marine Photobank (bottom image)Underutilized species – a cautionary tale: Underutilized species – a cautionary tale Considered “trash fish” prior to 1980s Targeted fishery developed after decline of other species Renamed “rock salmon” or “cape shark” Spiny dogfish shark “Fish and Chips” NOAA FisheriesFrom “underutilized” to “overfished”: From “underutilized” to “overfished” Fishing effort increased 10X from 1987 to 1996 Declared overfished in 1998 Female population falls 80% by 2000 NMFS implements management plan in 2002 NOAA Fisheries (U.S. East Coast)Reduce government subsidies: Reduce government subsidies Reduction and eventual elimination of government subsidies allows price to be a more reliable indicator of scarcity.Market-based Solutions: Market-based Solutions Certification Consumer-based solutions Purchase of fishing rights Aquaculture Increased use of underutilized species Reduce government subsidiesEcosystem-based Fishery Management: Ecosystem-based Fishery Management To sustain healthy marine ecosystems and the fisheries they support Reduce bycatch Marine reserves Monitoring of population characteristics Catch share programs Ecologically sustainable yieldReduce bycatch: Reduce bycatch Turtle excluder device on shrimp boat in Gulf of Mexico NOAA Photo Library / William B. Folsom, NMFSPowerPoint Presentation: NOAA FisheriesMethods for Bycatch Reduction: Methods for Bycatch Reduction Fishery closures Improve selectivity of fishing methods Reduce contact between fishing gear and non-target species Separate species on the basis of size Exploit behavioral differencesUnintended Consequences of Bycatch Reduction Efforts: Unintended Consequences of Bycatch Reduction Efforts Dolphin mortality due to tuna sets has decreased from 12 per set to 0.2 per set since 1990 But…. Bycatch of undersize tuna, sea turtles, sharks and other fish species has increased 10 -100XDolphin Bycatch Reduction in the Tuna Fishery: Dolphin Bycatch Reduction in the Tuna Fishery Estimated dolphin mortality in eastern tropical Pacific purse seine tuna fishery NOAA Fisheries Service – Southwest Fisheries Science Center Purse seine set for tuna “Backdown” procedureMedina panels: Medina panels Medina panels are sections of fine mesh net that are added to purse seines to reduce dolphin entanglement UNFAOMarine Reserves: Marine Reserves Extractive activities such as fishing, mining and oil drilling are prohibited.PowerPoint Presentation: Channel Island Marine Reserve, California Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal OceansMonitoring of Population Characteristics: Monitoring of Population Characteristics Altered age structure may be an indication of overfishing Haddock Northeast Fisheries Science CenterCatch Share Programs Limited Access Privilege Programs – LAPPs: Catch Share Programs Limited Access Privilege Programs – LAPPs Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQs) can be bought and sold Jose Cort / UNFAO / NOAA Photo Library Bluefin tuna harvest in SpainCurrent Catch Share Programs: Current Catch Share Programs Surf Clam/Ocean Quahog Future Programs Wreckfish Halibut/Sablefish Sea Scallop Western Alaska Mid-Atlantic Tilefish Bering Sea Pollock Gulf of Mexico Grouper Pacific Sablefish West Coast Trawl Groundfish Georges Bank Hook and Line Cod Georges Bank Fixed Gear Cod Bering Sea King and Tanner Crab Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Bering Sea GroundfishBenefits of and Objections to Catch Share Programs: Benefits of and Objections to Catch Share Programs Benefits Provide fishers with a direct financial stake in the health of fish stocks Fishers can more effectively plan their fishing effort Improved product quality and value Bycatch reduction Improved safety Increased predictability Concerns Allocation of shares Transition to a new regulatory system Privatization of public resources Monopolization of resource by largest operatorsPowerPoint Presentation: Percent of fisheries collapsed with and without ITQ management ITQ fisheries Open access # of ITQ fisheries From: Costello et al., Can Catch Shares Prevent Fisheries Collapse. Science 321, 1678-1681 (2008) reprinted with permission from AAASPowerPoint Presentation: What if all non-ITQ fisheries had switched to ITQs in 1970? This simulation illustrates the predicted trend in fisheries collapse if all non-ITQ fisheries switched to ITQ fisheries in 1970 (dotted line) compared to the actual trend (solid line). From: Costello et al., Can Catch Shares Prevent Fisheries Collapse. Science 321, 1678-1681 (2008) reprinted with permission from AAASEcologically Sustainable Yield (ESY): Ecologically Sustainable Yield (ESY) Allows a sustainable harvest that does not shift the marine ecosystem to an undesirable state Requires long-term monitoring of all trophic levels Requires more complete knowledge of the biology of individual speciesEcosystem-based Fishery Management: Ecosystem-based Fishery Management Reduce bycatch Marine reserves Monitoring of population characteristics Catch share programs Ecologically sustainable yieldCan fish continue to feed the world?: Can fish continue to feed the world? Campbell, Neil A.: Mitchell, Lawrence G.; Reece, Jane B., Biology: Concepts and Connections, 2 nd Edition, © 1997, p. 711. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.The Future of Marine Fisheries: The Future of Marine Fisheries “An ecosystem-based approach is founded on the notion that robust fisheries depend on healthy marine ecosystems…… Ideally, ecosystem-based fishery management would shift the burden of proof that fishing would not take place unless it could be shown not to harm key components of the ecosystem.” Pikitch, et al. 2004 Passage Productions / NOAA Photo LibrarySummary: Summary Traditional fisheries management has not resulted in sustainable fisheries Market-based solutions attempt to use the power of the market to alter the seafood economy in ways that contribute to sustainable fisheries Ecosystem-based solutions attempt to sustain healthy marine ecosystems and the fisheries they support The future of marine fisheries is dependent upon an integration of traditional, market-based and ecosystem-based management strategies NOAA Photo Library / OAR/National Undersea Research Program (NURP); Alaska Department of Fish and GamePhoto Credits: Photo Credits Campbell, Neil A; Mitchell, Lawrence G., Reece Jane B., Biology Concepts and Connections Marine Photobank - Gavin Parsons, Sascha Regmann, Marine Stewardship Council Millennium Ecosystem Assessment NOAA - Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Alaska Fisheries Science Center Marine Observer Program, NOAA Fisheries, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Robert Brigham, Danilo Cedrone, Chantell Royer NOAA Photo Library - Passage Productions, OAR/National Undersea Research Program (NURP); Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Jose Cort, William B. Folsom Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO) Science multiple figures reprinted with permission from AAAS Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UNFAO) You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.