ANTI ASTHMATIC AGENT

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SEMINAR ON ANTI ASTHMATIC AGENTS:

SEMINAR ON ANTI ASTHMATIC AGEN TS PRESENTED BY S.MANMEET KOUR M.PHARM(PHARMACOLOGY) .

ASTHMA:

ASTHMA INTRODUCTION Asthma is a Respiratory disease. It is a chronic Inflammatory disorder of the airways.

ANATOMY OF ASTHMA:

ANATOMY OF ASTHMA

DEFINATION::

DEFINATION: Airways becomes smaller or narrower, due to: Underlying inflammation or swelling Increased mucus production and Contraction of muscles around the airways, or bronchospasm .

MECHANISM::

MECHANISM:

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ASTHMA:

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ASTHMA Airway inflammation is the primary problem in asthma. An initial event in asthma appears to be the release of inflammatory mediators (e.g., histamine, and leukotrines ) triggered by exposure to allergens, and irritants. The mediators are released from bronchial mast cells and lymphocytes. Some mediators directly cause acute bronchoconstriction , termed as “Early-phase asthmatic response”.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ASTHMA:

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ASTHMA

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ASTHMA:

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ASTHMA The inflammatory mediators also direct the activation of eosinophills and neutrophills , and their migration to the airways, where they cause injury. This so-called “ late-phase asthmatic response” results airway edema, mucus hypersecretion . Varying airflow obstruction leads to recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and cough.

DRUGS FOR ASTHMA:

DRUGS FOR ASTHMA

BRONCHODILATORS-SUB CLASSIFICATION:

BRONCHODILATORS-SUB CLASSIFICATION

SYMPATHOMIMETICS:

SYMPATHOMIMETICS Adrenergic drugs cause bronchodilation through

Salbutamol Salmeterol:

Salbutamol Salmeterol

Side Effect Of Sympathomietic:

Side Effect Of Sympathomietic

METHYLXANTHINES:

METHYLXANTHINES Mostly used in COPD Theophylline is one of the three naturally occuring methylated xanthine alkaloids Caffeine, Theophylline , Theobromine .

Mechanism of action::

Mechanism of action: 3 distinct actions of methylxanthines are:

Inhibition of Phosphodisterase:

Inhibition of Phosphodisterase The concentration of cyclic nucletiode is increased. Bronchodilation , cardiac stimulation and vasodilation occur when c AMP level rises in the cells. ATP or GTP c AMP or c GMP 5-AMP or 5-GMP Phosphodiesterase Inhibition of phosphodiesterase by theophylline

ANTICHOLINERGICS:

ANTICHOLINERGICS Atropine drug cause bronchodilation by blocking cholinergics , act primarily in larger airways. Inhaled Ipratropium bromide is less efficacious than sympathomimetics . Combination of Ipratropium bromide with β 2 agonist produces more marked and longer lasting bronchodilation used in severe asthma.

Leukotriene antagonist:

Leukotriene antagonist Cystenyl leukotrienes are important mediators of bronchial asthma. So leukotriene antagonist are used. MONTELUKAST AND ZAFRILUKAST They competatively antagonize cysLT1 receptor mediated Broncho constriction.

MAST CELL STABILIZERS::

MAST CELL STABILIZERS: Mast cells are found throughout the body , including in the airways in the lungs. They can release substances that result in Inflammation, causing the symptoms of asthma. Mast cell stabilizers prevent the mast cells from releasing the substances that cause inflammation.

Sodium Cromoglycate Ketotifen:

Sodium Cromoglycate Ketotifen

CORTICOSTERIODS:

CORTICOSTERIODS Gluco corticoids are not bronchodilators. They benfit by reducing bronchial hyper activity, mucosal edema by supressing inflammatory response. The exact mechanism of action of corticosteriods is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve an inhibitory effect on leukocyte recruitment in to airways.

ANTI-IgE ANTIBODY:

ANTI- IgE ANTIBODY OMALIZUMAB: It is humanizied monoclonal antibody against IgE . Administered i.v or s.c it neutralises free IgE in circulation without activating mast cells and other inflammatory cells. MECHANISM OF ACTION: This drug leads to decreased binding of IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils and limits the release of mediators of allergic response.

PowerPoint Presentation:

conclusion Asthma is a curable disease, so it is needed to take proper medication and there is a need to follow the medication therapy systematically.

REFERENCES:

REFERENCES KD Tirpathi . Drugs for cough and bronchial Asthma. In: M.Tripathi , Editor. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, 6 th ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical publishers; 2008. P.216-227. H.P. Rang, M.M. Dale, J.M. Ritter, R.J.Flower . The Respiratory System. In: Stephen Mc Grath , Editor. Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology, 6 th ed ; 2007. P.358-366.

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