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A griculture Growing plants and receiving animals for food , clothing, and other useful products is called agriculture .


Crops Plants of same kind grown on a large scale for food, clothing, etc., are called crops.


KHARIF CROPS They are generally planted in June and harvested in October. Rice, maize, cotton and ground nuts are examples of kharif crops . RICE MAIZE COTTON GROUNDNUT


RABI CROPS They are generally planted in November and harvested in April. Wheat, barley ,pea and gram are examples of rabi crops . WHEAT BARLEY PEA GRAM

Agricultural practices:

Agricultural practices 1)Soil preparation a)Ploughing b)Leveling c)Applying fertilizers 2)Selection and sowing of seeds 3)Irrigation (watering of crops) 4)Weeding and crop protection 5)Harvesting and storage

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Soil Preparation Soil preparation involves ploughing , levelling and applying fertilizers.

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Ploughing The process of loosening and turning the soil is called ploughing or tilling.

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Levelling Even after ploughing , big Lumps of soil may remain In the field . These are crushed using wooden or iron planks called levellers . This process is called levelling .

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Applying Fertilizers Eventually , the soil even turn infertile. To avoid this situation , farmers often add substance called fertilizers.

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Selection Of Seeds Selecting good-quality, healthy seeds is the next important of crop production. In India, a government body called The National Seeds Corporation (NSC) is involved in the production of good-quality agricultural seed. NSC has also helped in setting up seed-testing laboratories in different parts of the country.

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Sowing Of Seeds Sowing is the process of placing seeds in the soil. Sowing may be done manually or with the help of an implement called seed drill.

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Manual Sowing This process involves directly sprinkling seeds ino the soil. Seeds sown in this manner are distributed unevenly, Also, this method may not ensure that all seeds are sown at the correct depth.

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Using A Seed Drill A seed drill ca be pulled across the field using bullocks or a tractor. Seeds sown using a seed drill are distributed evenly and Placed at the correct depth in the soil.

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IRRIGATON- It refers to artificial Application of water to the soil for assisting the growth of crops. Methods of irrigation may be considered under two broad categories : traditional and modern.


TRADITIONAL METHODS Canal irrigation , furrow irrigation , chain pump , moat [ pulley system ] , dhekli , rahat [water wheel] are some of the traditional methods of irrigation these method are cheaper , but often lead to wastage of water.


MODERN METHODS Sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation are examples of modern methods of irrigation. These methods help in saving water eg . - sprinkler system and drip irrigation.


WATERLOGGING Care must be taken not to water the field excessively. Excess water on the field may cause a condition waterlogging . Decreasing the amount of air available to the roots and Leading to an increase in the salt content of the soil.


WEEDING Sometimes , desirable plants called weeds grow along with the crop. Amaranthus [ chaulai ] wild oat ,grass are examples of weeds. The process of removing weeds is called wedding. Weeding may be done manually or by using chemicals called weedicides .


STORAGE Harvested grains need to be stored before they made available for consumption .To prevent their spoilage , it is necessary to insure that both the grains and the storage area are free of moisture .

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The storage area should be kept clean and dry .Pesticides should be sprayed beforehand to keep away pests. Periodic inspection of the storage area is necessary to insure the safety of grains

Increasing crop yield :

Increasing crop yield Carrying out the basic agricultural practices systematically can substantially increase crop yield . Techniques such as mixed cultivation and crop rotation can increase crop yield further.

Mixed Cultivation:

Mixed Cultivation In mixed cultivation ,two or more different types of crops are sown in a particular field at the same time .For example :- A leguminous plant such as pea can be sown in the same field , along with a cereal such as wheat.

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Manual weeding Weeds may be uprooted by hand or removed with the help of implements such as harrow, trowel, or hoe manual weeding has the following disadvantages. it is time – consuming and may even land to accidental removal of desired crops. the implements used (such as trowel, harrow, and hoe) are made of iron and need regular maintenance to prevent rusting .

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Using weedicides A weedicide is a chemical that is used to destroy weeds. Weedicides destroy the weeds without affecting the crop. Dalapon, metachlor, and siziazine are examples of weedicides.

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Animals such as rate and insects also damage crops. Such animals are called pests. Pests can be destroyed by using chemicals called pesticides. Weedicides and pesticides have the following disadvantages. accidental contact with these chemicals may adversely affect the health of farmers. Traces of these poisonous chemical may remain in crops themselves, which can be very harmful to human life. It is therefore, very important to wash grains vegetables, etc., thoroughly before consumption .

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Harvesting The process of cutting and gathering of called harvesting .

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Threshing a machine manually combine harvester can be used for both harvesting and threshing winnowing, which involves the separation of the grain from chaff (seed covering and tiny pieces of leaves or stem), can be done manually, or using a `winnowing machine

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Crop Rotation Changing crop sequences to create an unstable and inhospitable environment for weed establishment and survival – resource availability allelopathic effects soil disturbance soil fertility mechanical damage X time

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Grass crop vegetable Legume Mustard Forage Small grain Legume Cover crop

Nitrogen Fixation:

Nitrogen Fixation


Sources Lightning Inorganic fertilizers Nitrogen Fixation Animal Residues Crop residues Organic fertilizers



Animal husbandary:

Animal husbandary We obtain many kind of food item from animals. Rearing animals on large scale, for food and other need.


Milk.. Milk is obtained from animals such as cows, Buffalo, and goat. It is used to prepare variety of products such as butter, ghee, cheese and curd,


Meat.. Meat is obtained from animals such as goat and chicken. People also eat many kinds of fish, shrimps, lobsters, and other sea animals


Eggs.. Eggs are obtained from birds such as chicken, turkey, and goose .


Honey.. Honey is obtained from honey bees. The practice of rearing honeybees for honey is known as apiculture.

Root nodules of soya..:

Root nodules of soya..



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