The Art of Deception

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The Art of Deception: Academic Techniques in Lie Detection:

The Art of Deception: Academic Techniques in Lie Detection R eza J elveh H ellenic A merican U niversity M anchester, N ew H ampshire, USA Second 21 st Century Academic Forum Conference (8-10 March, 2015) Harvard University

Introduction To Deception Analysis :

Introduction To Deception Analysis Inception of Human Life Deception is defined as a deliberate act of misleading others . Our desires Vs. Our Real world … Gap : Lie Psychology & Physiology Lie Detection Human Vs. Animal

Introduction To Deception Analysis :

Introduction To Deception Analysis Men Vs. Women Extraverts Vs. Introverts Strangers lie 3-5 times during the first 15 minutes of their meeting.

Introduction To Deception Analysis :

Introduction To Deception Analysis Deception can be genetic (Martin & Eyesenck, 1976; Young, Eaves, and Eyesenck, 1980; Martin & Jardin, 1986). Lying has different forms; Outright , Exaggerated or Subtle (DePaulo et al., 1996). Liars Vs. Lie Detectors in an Arms Race Leakage & Indicators of Deception Fear, Guilt and Excitement (High/Low Stake) Linguistic Vs. Paralinguistic Deception Indicators

Linguistic Indicators Of Deception:

Linguistic Indicators Of Deception Word Quantity: Concise Vs. Verbose (Time) Inconsistency & Contradiction Generalization Contraction of Negative Sentences Emphatic Use of Language (Denial) Pronoun Use Vagueness of Statement Use of Emotion Words (Negative) Deflection, Objection, Denial Cognitive Complexity

Linguistic Indicators Of Deception:

Linguistic Indicators Of Deception Past to Present Tense Shift Use of Specific Words (e.g. whatever=contempt) Lack of Behavioral Control High Pitch of Voice Grammatical Error, Pause & Disfluency Hedges & Modifiers Group References Vs. Self References Repeating Questions to Buy Time Use of Gap Fillers (e.g. actually, etc.) Use of If (Self-Doubt)

Paralinguistic Indicators Of Deception:

Paralinguistic Indicators Of Deception Fingers in front of Mouth (Hushing) Swallowing Biting Lips Looking Down (Guilt) Eyebrows Up Touching Watch/Earring, Etc. Hand Illustration Shrug Folding Arms Clearing the Throat

Paralinguistic Indicators Of Deception:

Paralinguistic Indicators Of Deception Sweating Head & Eyes Down, Blocking Eyesight Touching Hair (Anxiety) Middle Finger Touching Forehead Eye Contact/Blinking Raised Eyebrows Pulled Together (Fear) Tight Lip, Flap Nostrils (Anger) Eye Movement Fake Emotion (Lack of Embracement)

Error In Lie Detection:

Error In Lie Detection False Positive ; a truthful person incorrectly judged to be lying. False Negative ; a liar incorrectly judged to be truthful.

Post Exposure Analysis: The Chronic Disease of “Lie Detectors” :

Post Exposure Analysis: The Chronic Disease of “Lie Detectors”

Experiment Of The Study:

Experiment Of The Study Participants: 10 (6 Male & 4 Female); Fluent in English; Between 20-50 Years of Age Procedure: They were asked to make 10 statements that some of them are lies. Then, the researcher tried to see if he could identify the deceptive statements using indicators or strategies which might shed light on the deception detection process. The first statement must be true, usually introducing themselves, in order for the researcher to get a baseline . Meanwhile, the researcher could interrupt the participants and ask follow up questions.

Experiment Of The Study:

Experiment Of The Study They were given enough time to prepare themselves for the interview. They were told that the best liar will receive a reward. Interviews were audio/video recorded according to the preference of participants. They were asked to answer some questions about the following issues: Stress Memory Mathematics Composition & Story Telling Genetics

Experiment Of The Study:

Experiment Of The Study Easy or Hard Level of Education Reason of Lying Feelings Time of Preparation Strategies of Lying At last, they were asked to share with the researcher which statements or parts of statements were not true.

Findings Of The Study:

Findings Of The Study Checklist of Deception Indicators Linguistic Indicators: Inconsistency & Contradiction Generalization Grammatical Error, Pause & Disfluency Paralinguistic Indicators: Gulping or Swallowing Shrug Looking Down Eye Contact/Blinking

Findings Of The Study:

Findings Of The Study Challenge of Memory: Asking to Write , Repeat , or Follow up Questions . Post-Interview Questions: Stress Memory Mathematics: Composition & Story Telling Genetics Easy or Hard (Cognitive Load) Level of Education Reason of Lying Feelings Time of Preparation Strategies of Lying

Findings Of The Study:

Findings Of The Study Movement of Eyebrows (Lie, Emphasis, Surprise) Shrug Misconception Inventing a Lie is Easy ; however, Delivering a Lie is Hard. Indicators are relative; they cannot be solely relied on; emergence of clusters of indicators are important.

Lying & Lie Detection: Penalty Shootout:

Lying & Lie Detection: Penalty Shootout Liars are like Penalty Takers ; normally they need to do the easy job. Lie Detectors are like Goal Keepers ; normally they need to the hard job. Variables of Success: Proficiency and Skill of the Players Spectators Ball & Soccer Field Luck

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