Mughal emperors of India

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Slide 1: 

By D. Aditya VII A

Who Are Mughals? : 

Who Are Mughals? The Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of rulers. From their mother’s side they were descendants of Genghis Khan, ruler of the Mongol tribes, China & Central Asia.

Slide 3: 

From their father’s side they were the successors of Timur, the ruler of Iran, Iraq & Modern-day Turkey. They celebrated their genealogy pictorially, each ruler getting a picture made of Timur & himself. They celebrated their genealogy pictorially, each ruler getting a picture made of Timur & himself.

Slide 4: 

Ruling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent with such a diversity of people & cultures was a difficult task for a ruler to accomplish in Middle Ages.

Slide 5: 

Mughals created an empire and accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for only short periods. They expanded their kingdom from Agra to Delhi.

Slide 6: 

The Mughal Empire) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled most of the Indian subcontinent between 1526 and 1857. The empire was founded by the Mongol leader Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. The Mughal Empire

Slide 7: 

Mughal rulers created a powerful empire in which military might and artistic culture flourished. The Mughal Empire

Slide 8: 

After the fall of the Gupta Empire in the 500s, India broke apart into a number of small kingdoms. Muslim Rule in India

Slide 9: 

Delhi Sultanate Once Muslims took control of north India, established new government for region based in city of Delhi Government became known as Delhi sultanate Rulers in sultanate tolerant, allowed traditional customs, religions

Slide 10: 

Blending of Cultures Rulers also worked to spread Muslim culture through India Invited artists, scholars from other parts of Islamic world to Delhi New culture formed, blending Muslim, Indian elements Example: new language, Urdu, formed from combination of Arabic, Sanskrit

Slide 11: 

The Delhi sultanate remained strong for about 300 years. By the early 1500s, its power was weakening. This weakening left India open to invasion. A New Empire

Slide 12: 

The Mughal Empire was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled most of the Indian Sub continent between 1526 and 1857 The Mughal Empire The empire was founded by the Mongol leader Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. The word "Mughal" is the Indo-Aryan version of Mongol.

Slide 13: 

The Mughal family line

Military : 

Military Babur, the first Mughal emperor, succeeded to the throne of ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old. He was forced to leave his ancestral throne due to invasion of Mongol group, the uzbegs. In 1526 he defeated the sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim lodi, at Panipat & captured Delhi & Agra

Slide 15: 

The Great Mughal Emperors Babur: 1526-1530 Humayun: 1530-1556 Akbar: 1556-1605 Jahangir: 1605-1627 Shah Jahan: 1627-1658 Aurangazeb: 1658-1707

Mughal relations with other rulers : 

Mughal relations with other rulers As the Mughals became powerful many other rulers also joined them voluntarily. The Rajputs are good example of this. many of them married their daughters into Mughal families and received high positions. But many resisted as well. once defeated, however, they were honorably treated by Mughals, given lands back as assignments.

Mughals traditions of succession : 

Mughals traditions of succession The Mughals did not believe in the rule of primogeniture where the eldest son inherited his father’s estate. Instead they followed the Mughal and Timurid custom of coparcenary inheritance amongst all sons.

Religion : 

Religion Mughals followed a different kind of religion. It was named sulh-i-kul. As in the wide expanse of the divine compassion there is room for all classes and the followers of all creeds, so…. in his Imperial dominions, which on all sides were limited only by the sea, there was room for the professors of opposite religions, & for beliefs, good & bad, and the road to intolerance was closed . Sunnis and shias met in one mosque and Christians and Jews in one church to pray.

Slide 19: 

They consistently followed the principle of “universal peace” {sulh-i-kul} it was also followed by Jahangir & Shah jahan.

Slide 20: 

Mughal emperors

Slide 21: 

In the early sixteenth century, descendants of the Mongol, Turkish, Iranian, and Afghan invaders of South Asia--the Mughals--invaded India under the leadership of Zahir-ud-Din Babur. Babur was the great-grandson of Timur Lenk (Timur the Lame, from which the Western name Tamerlane is derived), who had invaded India and plundered Delhi in 1398 and then led a short-lived empire based in Samarkand (in modern-day Uzbekistan) that united Persian-based Mongols (Babur's maternal ancestors) and other West Asian people.

Slide 22: 

Babur was driven from Samarkand and initially established his rule in Kabul in 1504; he later became the first Mughal ruler (1526-30). His determination was to expand eastward into Punjab, where he had made a number of forays. Then an invitation from an opportunistic Afghan chief in Punjab brought him to the very heart of the Delhi Sultanate, ruled by Ibrahim Lodi (1517-26). Babur, entered India in 1526 with his well-trained veteran army of 12,000 to meet the sultan's huge but unwieldy and disunited force of more than 100,000 men Babur defeated the Lodi sultan decisively at Panipat (in modern-day Haryana, about ninety kilometers north of Delhi). Employing gun carts, moveable artillery, and superior cavalry tactics, Babur achieved a resounding victory.

Slide 24: 

A year later, he decisively defeated a Rajput confederacy led by Rana Sangha. In 1529 Babur routed the joint forces of Afghans and the sultan of Bengal but died in 1530 before he could consolidate his military gains. He left behind as legacies his memoirs (Babur Namah ).

Slide 25: 

When Babur died, his son Humayun (1530-56), also a soldier, inherited a difficult task. Humayun was pressed from all sides by a reassertion of Afghan claims to the Delhi throne, by disputes over his own succession, and by the Afghan-Rajput march into Delhi in 1540.

Slide 26: 

HUMAYUN Humayun inherited one of the largest empires in the world at the time and nearly ruined it. Between 1530 and 1540 he managed to lose all the land that his father worked so hard to get through rebellions from Afghanistan and India.

Slide 27: 

Humayun fled to Persia, where he spent nearly ten years as an embarrassed guest at the Safavid court. In 1545, Humayun gained a foothold in Kabul, reasserted his Indian claim, defeated Sher Khan Sur, the most powerful Afghan ruler, and took control of Delhi in 1555.

Slide 28: 

He ended up eventually regaining all the lands back but is looked upon as one of the worst Mughal emperors. At the end of his conquests he fell down a flight of stairs and broke his neck. Humayun's untimely death in 1556 left the task of further imperial conquest and consolidation to his thirteen-year-old son, Jalal-ud-Din Akbar (r. 1556-1605).

Slide 29: 

Humayun’s tomb with Babur’s tomb in the foreground

Slide 30: 

Babur’s Grandson Babur died shortly after conquest of India, task of organizing what he conquered fell to descendants Most done by grandson, Akbar the Great Akbar the Great

Slide 31: 

Akbar was an artisan, warrior, artist, armorer, blacksmith, carpenter, emperor, general, inventor, animal trainer (reputedly keeping thousands of hunting cheetahs during his reign and training many himself), lace maker, technologist and theologian.

Slide 32: 

Following a decisive military victory at the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556, the regent Bayram Khan pursued a vigorous policy of expansion on Akbar's behalf. As soon as Akbar came of age, Bayram Khan began to free himself from the influences of overbearing ministers, court factions, and harem intrigues, and demonstrated his own capacity for judgment and leadership

Slide 33: 

A "workaholic" who seldom slept more than three hours a night, Bayram Khan personally oversaw the implementation of his administrative policies, which were to form the backbone of the Mughal Empire for more than 200 years. Bayram Khan continued to conquer, annex, and consolidate a far-flung territory bounded by Kabul in the northwest, Kashmir in the north, Bengal in the east, and beyond the Narmada River in the south--an area comparable in size to the Mauryan territory some 1,800 years earlier.

Slide 34: 

Akbar built a walled capital called Fatehpur Sikri (Fatehpur means Fortress of Victory) near Agra, starting in 1571. In 1585, Akbar relocated the capital to Lahore and in 1599 to Agra.

Slide 35: 

Diverse Population Akbar took throne at age 13, but became greatest of all Mughal rulers Realized India had diverse population, which could lead to breakdown of empire; did everything he could to win people’s loyalty Expanding Rule Akbar married daughter of local noble to win noble’s support Brought sons of other nobles to live at court Did not hesitate to fight to prevent rebellion 1605, Akbar died; at time, Mughals ruled most of north India, much of interior

Slide 36: 

Religious Tolerance Akbar worked to unify diverse empire by promoting religious tolerance Held that no one religion could provide all answers to life’s problems Did not want to discourage people from practicing any religion, discriminate against anyone for their beliefs Akbar’s Achievements

Slide 37: 

Akbar adopted two distinct but effective approaches in administering a large territory and incorporating various ethnic groups into the service of his realm. In 1580, Akbar obtained local revenue statistics for the previous decade in order to understand details of productivity and price fluctuation of different crops.

Slide 38: 

Aided by Todar Mal, a Rajput king, Akbar issued a revenue schedule that the peasantry could tolerate while providing maximum profit for the state. Revenue demands, fixed according to local conventions of cultivation and quality of soil, ranged from one-third to one-half of the crop and were paid in cash.

Slide 39: 

Akbar relied heavily on land-holding zamindars. They used their considerable local knowledge and influence to collect revenue and to transfer it to the treasury, keeping a portion in return for services rendered.

Slide 40: 

Within his administrative system, the warrior aristocracy (mansabdars) held ranks (mansabs) expressed in numbers of troops, and indicating pay, armed contingents, and obligations. The warrior aristocracy was generally paid from revenues of nonhereditary and transferrable jagirs (revenue villages).

Slide 41: 

An astute ruler who genuinely appreciated the challenges of administering so vast an empire, Akbar introduced a policy of reconciliation and assimilation of Hindus (including Maryam al-Zamani, the Hindu Rajput mother of his son and heir, Jahangir), who represented the majority of the population

Slide 42: 

He personally participated in celebrating Hindu festivals such as Dipavali, or Diwali, the festival of lights; and abolished the jizya (poll tax) imposed on non-Muslims. He recruited and rewarded Hindu chiefs with the highest ranks in government; encouraged intermarriages between Mughal and Rajput aristocracy; allowed new temples to be built

Slide 43: 

Akbar came up with his own theory of "ruler ship as a divine illumination," enshrined in his new religion Din-i-Ilahi (Divine Faith), incorporating the principle of acceptance of all religions and sects.

Slide 44: 

He encouraged widow marriage, discouraged child marriage, outlawed the practice of sati, and persuaded Delhi merchants to set up special market days for women, who otherwise were secluded at home

Slide 45: 

His most lasting contributions were to the arts. He initiated a large collection of literature, including the Akbar-nama and the Ain-i-Akbari, and incorporated art from around the world into the Mughal collections. He also commissioned the building of widely admired buildings, and invented the first prefabricated homes and movable structures

Slide 46: 

By the end of Akbar's reign, the Mughal Empire extended throughout most of India north of the Godavari River. The exceptions were Gondwana in central India, which paid tribute to the Mughals, and Assam, in the northeast

Slide 48: 

Mughal rule under Jahangir (1605-27) and Shah Jahan (1628-58) was noted for political stability, brisk economic activity, beautiful paintings, and monumental buildings.

Slide 49: 

Height of the Mughal Empire

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During reign, Jahangir came into conflict with religious group, Sikhs Some Sikhs had supported rebellion against Jahangir Sikhism, blended elements of Islam, Hinduism Like Muslims, believe in one God, who created world, who has no physical form Unlike Muslims, who believe in afterlife, believe in reincarnation Believe goal of existence to be freed from cycle of rebirth, attain unity with God Do not practice rituals like pilgrimage, yoga, from the earlier religions

Slide 51: 

Jahangir married the Persian princess whom he renamed Nur Jahan (Light of the World), who emerged as the most powerful individual in the court besides the emperor. As a result, Persian poets, artists, scholars, and officers--including her own family members--lured by the Mughal court's brilliance and luxury, found asylum in India.

Slide 52: 

The number of unproductive, time-serving officers mushroomed, as did corruption, while the excessive Persian representation upset the delicate balance of impartiality at the court. Jahangir liked Hindu festivals but promoted mass conversion to Islam

Slide 53: 

Jahangir persecuted the followers of Jainism and even executed Guru Arjun Das, the fifth saint-teacher of the Sikhs Nur Jahan's abortive schemes to secure the throne for the prince of her choice led Shah Jahan to rebel in 1622.

Slide 54: 

In that same year, the Persians took over Kandahar in southern Afghanistan, an event that struck a serious blow to Mughal prestige. Between 1636 and 1646, Shah Jahan sent Mughal armies to conquer the Deccan and the northwest beyond the Khyber Pass. Even though, the Persians demonstrated Mughal military strength, these campaigns consumed the imperial treasury. As the state became a huge military machine, whose nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold, so did its demands for more revenue from the peasantry.

Slide 55: 

Political unification and maintenance of law and order over wide areas encouraged the emergence of large centers of commerce and crafts--such as Lahore, Delhi, Agra, and Ahmadabad--linked by roads and waterways to distant places and ports.

Slide 56: 

Jahangir’s son and successor, Shah Jahan shared his father’s love of literature and art. During his reign the Mughal Empire experienced a cultural golden age. Shah Jahan In order to secure hold on power, he had all rivals murdered

Slide 58: 

The world-famous Taj Mahal was built in Agra during Shah Jahan's reign as a tomb for his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It symbolizes both Mughal artistic achievement and excessive financial expenditures when resources were shrinking.

Slide 59: 

The cost of building monuments such as the Taj Mahal and the palaces of Delhi was enormous.

Slide 60: 

The economic position of peasants and artisans did not improve because the administration failed to produce any lasting change in the existing social structure.

Slide 61: 

There was no incentive for the revenue officials, whose concerns primarily were personal or familial gain, to generate resources independent of dominant Hindu zamindars and village leaders, whose self-interest and local dominance prevented them from handing over the full amount of revenue to the imperial treasury.

Slide 62: 

Wars Series of wars against India’s neighbors also added to Shah Jahan’s need for money Many wars fought in name of Islam against Christians, Hindus Unlike father, grandfather, Shah Jahan was Muslim who did not practice religious tolerance Taxes Needed funds to pay for monuments Shah Jahan imposed heavy taxes on people Demanded half of all crops grown in the country Led to hardship, famine for many

Slide 63: 

In their ever-greater dependence on land revenue, the Mughals unwittingly nurtured forces that eventually led to the break-up of their empire. The last of the great Mughals was Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707), who seized the throne by killing all his brothers and imprisoning his own father.

Slide 64: 

Power Struggle 1657, Shah Jahan grew terribly ill Sons began to maneuver to take throne Soon war broke out between them Reign Early in reign, concerned with expanding India’s borders Empire reached greatest size at this time Later, Aurangzeb turned more to domestic affairs Succession Shah Jahan unexpectedly recovered but son Aurangzeb captured him After locking father in prison, killed all rivals Brought head of brother in box to show father; then declared himself emperor Aurangzeb

Slide 65: 

Muslim Views Worked to impose own strict religious views on society Issued strict decrees about morality, personal behavior Crushing Protesters Crowds of Shia, Sufi Muslims gathered to protest actions Aurangzeb ordered soldiers mounted on elephants to crush them Religious Persecution Persecuted Hindus, Sikhs Taxed them, forbade them high positions in government Destroyed their temples God of All Restrictions, persecution led many to rebel One wrote: “God is the God of all mankind…not the God of Muslims alone.” Domestic Affairs

Slide 66: 

Decline of the Mughals

Slide 67: 

During his fifty-year reign, the empire reached its utmost physical limit but also witnessed the unmistakable symptoms of decline. The bureaucracy had grown bloated and excessively corrupt, and the huge and unwieldy army demonstrated outdated weaponry and tactics. Aurangzeb was not the ruler to restore the dynasty's declining fortunes or glory.

Slide 68: 

Awe-inspiring but lacking in the charisma needed to attract outstanding lieutenants, Aurangzeb was driven to extend Mughal rule over most of South Asia and to reestablish Islamic orthodoxy by adopting a reactionary attitude toward those Muslims whom he had suspected of compromising their faith.

Slide 69: 

Aurangzeb was involved in a series of protracted wars--against the Pathans in Afghanistan, the sultans of Bijapur and Golkonda in the Deccan, and the Marathas in Maharashtra. Peasant uprisings and revolts by local leaders became all too common, as did the conniving of the nobles to preserve their own status at the expense of a steadily weakening empire.

Slide 70: 

The increasing association of his government with Islam further drove a wedge between the ruler and his Hindu subjects. Aurangzeb forbade the building of new temples, destroyed a number of them, and reimposed the jizya. A puritan and a censor of morals, he banned music at court, abolished ceremonies, and persecuted the Sikhs in Punjab. These measures alienated so many that even before he died challenges for power had already begun to escalate.

Slide 71: 

Contenders for the Mughal throne fought each other, and the short-lived reigns of Aurangzeb's successors were strife-filled. The Mughal Empire experienced dramatic reverses as regional governors broke away and founded independent kingdoms. The Mughals had to make peace with Maratha rebels, and Persian and Afghan armies invaded Delhi, carrying away many treasures, including the Peacock Throne in 1739.

Slide 72: 

After the death of Aurangzeb in AD 1707, the empire was divided and formed into many independent and semi-independent states. In AD 1739, Nadir Shah of Iran attacked Delhi, and this was followed by the attack of Ahmad Shah Abdali and soon the fragility of the power of the Mughals led to the declaration of independence by the vassal states

Slide 73: 

In spite of all these, the Mughals ruled the country till 1857 mostly as puppet governments of the East India Company, which was making its presence felt in the country.

Slide 74: 

The end of Mughal rule in India came when the soldiers who led the rebellion of 1857 marched to Delhi and announced the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, as the ruler of India.

Slide 75: 

The rebellion was soon crushed and Bahadur Shah Zafar was deported to Myanmar by the East India Company. Thus putting an end to a dynasty, which rewrote the history of a nation.

Mughal influence on the subcontinent : 

Mughal influence on the subcontinent The main Mughal contribution to the south Asia was their unique architecture. They also influenced these points: Persian art & culture amalgamated with native Indian art & culture. Urdu & Hindi languages were formed. Landscape gardening. A new style of architecture.

Slide 77: 

The Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent in the time of Aurangzeb Alamgir, but it collapsed with dramatic suddenness within a few decades after his death. The Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to a combination of factors; firstly Aurangzeb religious policy is regarded as a cause for the decline of the Mughal Empire as it led to disunity among the people. Although the policy did lead to weakening of the empire but the major cause of decline was the lack of worthy and competent successors after him. Fall of Mughal Empire

Slide 78: 

The character of Mughal kings had deteriorated over a period of time. The successive rulers after Aurangzeb were weak and lacked the character, motivation and commitment to rule the empire strongly. They had become ease loving and cowardly. They totally disregarded their state duties and were unable to detain the declining empire from its fall. Fall of Mughal Empire

Slide 79: 

Shahjahanabad, the city that Shahjahan founded in the mid-1600's. It was the new capital of the Mughals, a prosperous city of fabled riches, of elegant mansions and gardens. Two hundred years after it was founded, Shahjahanabad fell to the British. Fall of Mughal Empire The 82-year old Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II - more a poet than a commander - became the frail figurehead under which Indian forces rallied. Indian rebel troops arrived in Delhi in May 1857, routing the small British force which was present in Delhi at the time. Over the next 5 months, the British (with their Pathan, Sikh and Gorkha regiments) laid siege to the city. On September 14, they stormed into the city through Kashmere Gate. After a bloody fight that raged through the streets of Shahjahanabad, the Mughal empire ended.

Slide 80: 

The Portuguese, Dutch, British, and French all sought influence in India War between British and French Increasing British influence under the East India Company After the Mughal reign in India…………

Slide 81: 

Many features of the Mughal administrative system were adopted by Great Britain in ruling India, but the most lasting achievements of the Mughals were in the field of architecture, painting and music.

Slide 82: 

Gold, silver and bronze from Mughal India

Slide 83: 

During the fabled Mughal age, the craftsmen of the Sultans and Rajahs of India produced an astonishing variety of objects in gold and gold enamel, silver, brass, bronze, gilt copper and the Deccani alloy known as bidri.

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The finest of these are among the most striking and poetic utilitarian wares ever made, in addition to being of the most outstanding technical refinement. Order, beauty, richness, restraint and sensuousness describe the essence of these works of art, whose greatness derives form the meeting of two worlds.

Slide 85: 

Such mingling of Hindu and Muslim sensibilities gave Mughal art the strength to endure, just as religious tolerance gave political strength to the Mughal emperor

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Gold, Silver and Bronze from Mughal India

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Great surviving objects of Mughal India

Mughal style of architecture : 

Mughal style of architecture Akbar, who is often considered the true founder of the Mughal Empire, laid the grounds for the significant economic growth and the fabulous art and building activities of his successors.

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1658

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Thank you

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