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Nanotechnology-Introduction

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Technical Seminar NANOTECHNOLOGY: the BIG DEAL about SMALL THINGS R Dinesh Indian Institute of Spices Research (ICAR), Calicut, Kerala, India

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Technical Seminar “ Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers , where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.” -National Nanotechnology Initiative It is not merely working with matter at the nanoscale, but also research and development of materials, devices, and systems that have novel properties and functions due to their nanoscale dimensions or components 10 -9 m

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History

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….History

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Macrosize Meters, decimeters, centimeters, millimeters Microsize Micrometers Nanosize Nanometers

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Human cells and bacteria have diameters around 1-10 µ m BUT Cellular machinery is on the nanoscale – Diameter of DNA is ~2 nm – Haemoglobin is 5.5 nm in Ø Structure of DNA PDB ID: 1BNA Structure of hemoglobin PDB ID: 1BUW Technical Seminar

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Types of Nanoparticles

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Biological nanoparticles Technical Seminar

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Technical Seminar Types of Engineered Nanoparticles [Source: Norwegian Pollution Control Authority. 2008]

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Technical Seminar NPs have different optical, electrical, magnetic, chemical and mechanical properties from their bulk counterparts are that in this size-range (between 1-100 nm) quantum effects start to predominate and the surface area-to-volume ratio ( sa / vol ) becomes very large. What’s the BIG deal about something so SMALL ?

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Technical Seminar The sa / vol of most materials increases gradually as their particles become smaller, which results in increased behavior Increased surface area allows chemical reactions to go much faster

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Why Is Nanotechnology So Cool? Bulk Gold mp = 1064 ° C Color = gold 1 nm gold particles mp = 700 ° C l max = 420 nm Color = brown-yellow 20 nm gold particles mp = ~1000 ° C l max = 521 nm Color = red 100 nm gold particles mp = ~1000 ° C l max = 575 nm Color = purple-pink Technical Seminar Connie Churchill and Auste Vygantas: NANOSCIENCE Thinking Small to Do Big Things

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Technical Seminar Materials reduced to the nano-scale can suddenly show very different properties , compared to what they exhibit on the macro-scale, which enables unique applications. (Ref.:Hristozov and Malsch, 2009)

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Economic Impact of Nanotechnology Market Size Predictions (within a decade)* *2007 Estimates by industry groups, source: NSF Technical Seminar

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Technical Seminar The total government funding for nanotechnology research worldwide

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Technical Seminar

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Technical Seminar

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Technical Seminar: 26/04/2014

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Technical Seminar

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There are over 1300 consumer products around the world that are manufacturer-identified as nanotechnology based. These products are here, ready to buy today! Nano-enabled Consumer Products ReF: The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies website: http://www.nanotechproject.org /

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Technical Seminar: 26/04/2014 Ref.: The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report (NOR), 3rd Edition Cientifica Ltd, “The market for products enabled by nano-technologies has reached US$ 263 billion by 2012.” “The highest growth rates will be in the convergence between bio- and nanotechnologies in the healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors.”

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Electronics and Computers Instead of making transistor components and assembling them on a board, nanoscale transistors are grown together on a silicon wafer. They look much different from the traditional transistors. Nano Transistor Traditional transistors Technical Seminar

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Because of nanotechnology, the speed of computers has increased while the price of computing has decreased . Technical Seminar

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2 GB in 1980s (70 lbs) $80,000 to $140,000 . 2 GB in 1990s:$200 2 GB in 2010: $5

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Current research shows that by using nanotechnology, 1000 GB of memory can fit on the head of this pin. (1000 GB = 1 TB. Image by HighPoint Learning Technical Seminar

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Carbon nanotubes on a glass or plastic sheet allow manufacturers to make clear conductive panels for displays that are extremely thin. Image ©LG Image courtesy of Universal Display Corporation Technical Seminar

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Technical Seminar

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Ref.: Moraru et al (2003) A new frontier in food science, Food Technology, 57, 24-29 Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food Science

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Applications of Nanotechnologies in food? FAO & WHO (2010): Twelve categories of applications for nanotechnologies in food Nanostructured food ingredients Nanodelivery systems for nutrients and supplements Organic nanosized additives for food , health food supplements and animal feed applications Inorganic nanosized additives for food , health food supplements and animal feed applications Food packaging applications Nanocoatings on food contact surfaces Surface functionalized nanomaterials Nanofiltration Nanosized agrochemicals Nanosensors for food labelling Water decontamination Other applications ( animal feed ) Technical Seminar STRATEGIC RESEARCH AGENDA 2007-2020, European Platform on Food for Life: Nanotechnologies as the key for tailor-made food and intelligent packaging

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Easy-To-Clean / Coatings / New Materials Functional Textiles / Sports goods Cosmetics & Health Care Food Pharmaceuticals / Cancer Therapy Water treatment / Environmental Techn. Energy efficiency / Energy Production/ Energy Storage Quellen: InnoCNT, BASF, Dialogbasis.de, Vegetal & Mineral Water, Michelin, MLR Energy Water Health Every–Day- Use Items What we dreamed of HAS BECOME A REALITY Technical Seminar Ref.: Dr. Antje Grobe, Prof. Dr. Milena Riede DIALOG BASIS, Universität Stuttgart, Universität St. Gallen

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Food containing nano-Titanium

Nano Food: Dream or Nightmare?:

Nano Food: Dream or Nightmare? Technical Seminar: 26/04/2014

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Contaminant detection using nanosensors Melamine Mechanism of melamine detection using nanoparticles and sample assay Image source: Prof. Li’s research website - ttp://www.mae.miami.edu/laboratories/inbs/resear ch_3column.html In 2008, thousands of people, especially children, got sick as a result of melamine contamination in dairy products from China. Assistant Professor Na Li at the University of Miami and her collaborators have developed a quick and easy way to detect melamine in milk using gold nanoparticles. In the presence of melamine, the mixture changes from pink to blue. [1, 2] [1] Marie Guma -Diaz, “Tiny Gold Particles Help Researchers Find Protein Impostor,” http://www.miami.edu/index.php/news/releases/tiny_gold_particles_help_researchers_find_protein_impostor_/ [2] Fang Wei, Robert Lam, Stacy Cheng, Steven Lu, Dean Ho, and Na Li, "Rapid detection of melamine in whole milk mediated by unmodified gold nanoparticles", Applied Physics Letters , 96, 133702, 2010

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Smart packaging by KiNeCt Helps to communicate the quality of the food within the package through devices either incorporated in the packaging or attached to the packaging. Potential nanosensors could indicate • Temperature • Freshness • Ripeness • Contaminants/pathogens right on the package ! Fresh Spoiled Resources: Kinect Go Green Premium Food Storage webpage – http://www.kinetic-cookware.com/product.asp?cat=59&subcat=113

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Fresher foods KiNeCt sells food storage containers that contain silver nanoparticles, which are antimicrobial, to keep foods fresher-longer. Kinect Go Green Premium Food Storage webpage http://www.kinetic-cookware.com/product.asp?cat=59&subcat=113

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Prof. Jeremy Tzeng of Clemson University is experimenting with new pathogen-disabling nanoparticles to keep chickens healthy. Nanoparticles are added to feed and mimic cell surfaces inside the chicken. The tiny pathogens (germs) get confused and bind to the particles instead of real cells, then “flush” – out as they go through the digestive system—keeping chickens safer and healthier for human consumption. [1, 2] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZuRH9psTJ9M&feature=player_embedded [ 1] J. Langley “Amid Food Scares, Nanotech Offers Healthier Option for Livestock“ http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/research/4270075.html [2] Clemson Public Service Activities, “Jeremy Tzeng : Intelligent Chicken Feed,“ http://www.clemson.edu/public/psatv/ag/intelligent_chicken_feed.html If it works on chickens, who’s next?

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Healthier French Fries? As a result of the large surface area at the nanoscale, it can extend the useful life span of the oil. It also helps heat the oil up more quickly which results in a quicker frying time and less oil content and crispier texture in the fries. In May 2008, WingZone announced their nationwide adoption of OilFresh 1000SE Frying Oil Extender! [2] Resources: [1] OilFresh Website - http://www.oilfresh.com/ [2] OilFresh Press Release - http://www.oilfresh.com/pdf/OilFresh_WingZone%2020080513%20Final.pdf Nanoscience can reduce oil use in all types of restaurants, including all fast food establishments. OilFresh , a company based out of Sunnyvale, California, has created nanoporous ceramic pellets that can be added to the frying oil to prevent oil molecules from clumping together while in use.

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Beer: Fresher, Longer Nanocor sells a product called Imperm that can be used in plastic bottles to improve the gas barrier properties of the bottles and extend product shelf life. Imperm is a nanocomposite of nylon and nano clay. [1] Beer can keep in normal plastic bottles for 11 weeks, but with the nanocomposite bottles, it can keep for as long as 30 weeks. [2] For your favorite beer or carbonated beverage, nanocomposites can help keep the oxygen out and the carbonation in. Resources: [1] Nanocor, “Imperm Grade 103 Technical Bulletin,” http://www.nanocor.com/tech_sheets/I103.pdf [2] Silvestre, C., D. Duraccio, and S. Cimmino. “Food packaging based on polymer nanomaterials." Progress in Polymer Science. Article in Press. PROST!

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With the help of nanoscience, some foods might be taken off of the ‘no-no’ list: Sherman Industries of Israel sells Canola Active Oil, which uses “nanodrops” to encapsulate and carry vitamins, minerals or phytochemicals which would not dissolve in the oil. That way you can get your vitamins while eating your home made fried treats! Resources: Canola Active Oil http://www.nanotechproject.org/inventories/consumer/browse/products/canola_active_oil/ Healthy, Yet Tasty, Donuts?

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Sensors for better wine Nano sensors linked to global positioning systems (GPS) for real-time monitoring of crops. [1] Accenture has developed a crop management system for Pickberry Vineyard in Sonoma County, California. They used a network of wireless sensors to continuously sense humidity, wind, water, and soil and air temperature over a 30-acre stretch of the vineyard. [2] They claim that “ the technology may make it possible to target irrigation when soil in one area dries, or remove leaves to expose grapes to more sun, or change the schedule for using pesticides .” [3] [1] Joseph, T. and Morrison, M. 2006. Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food. [2] Accenture website, “ Pickberry Vineyard: Accenture Prototype Helps Improve Crop Management” [3] Millman , G., “Virtual Vineyard, Case study: Sensor Telemetry”

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Nanotechnological intervention in agriculture focuses on three functional improvements Ref.: ObservatoryNANO, 2010

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Ref.: [1] Wang, L.. Li, Z.. Zhang, G., Dong, J., Eastoe , J., 2007. Oil-in-water nanoemulsions for pesticide formulations. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 314, 230–235. [2] Lai, F., Wissing , S. A., Muller, R. H. & Fadda A. M. 2006. Artemisia arborescens L essential oil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for potential agricultural application: Preparation and characterization. Aaps Pharmscitech , 7. Products under development

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Ref.: www.nanoforum.org; [1 ] Scrinis , G., Lyons, K., 2007. The emerging nano-corporate paradigm: Nanotechnology and the transformation of Nature, food and agri -food systems. International Journal of Sociology of Food & Agriculture 15, 22-44.

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Nanosensors linked to GPS for real-time monitoring of soil conditions and crop growth (USDA) Nano-veterinary medicine (nanoparticles, buckyballs, dendrimers, nanocapsules for drug delivery, nanovaccines; smart herds, cleaning fish ponds (Nanocheck); feed (Fe NPs) [Cornell Univ, Nanovic, Australia ] Some successful ventures in agriculture

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Nanomaterials could even be used to control the release of the fertilizer such that the nutrients are only taken up by the plant, and not lost to unintended targets like soil, water, or microorganisms. Nanofertilizers Resources: DeRosa , M. C., et al. "Nanotechnology in Fertilizers." Nature Nanotechnology 5.2 (2010): 91-91.

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Grobe & Rissanen 2012 A query in the Patentscope database of the World Intellectual Property Organization (keywords „nano* AND food* OR agricultur*“): 22,759 patents for nanotechnological solutions in the food sector from the years 2002-2012 Grobe, Antje & Rissanen, Mikko (2012): Nanotechnologies in Agriculture and Food: An Overview of Different Fields of Application, Risk Assessment and Public Perception. In: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture 2012 (4). Technical seminar

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Rank Country Patents Share (%) 1 USA 12205 57.09 2 Japan 3182 14.88 3 South Korea 943 4.41 4 Germany 886 4.14 5 Taiwan 649 3.04 6 France 561 2.62 7 China 420 1.96 8 Netherlands 397 1.86 9 UK 266 1.24 10 Switzerland 265 1.24 Top countries in the nanotechnology patents in USPTO in 2013

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Technical seminar Are these new products entering the market with an unknown risk potential? Is the public really afraid?

Be afraid...be very afraid:

Be afraid...be very afraid Ref.: C. Meili / J. Pritchett (2006) … on the other Hand … Ref.: Dr. Antje Grobe, Prof. Dr. Milena Riede DIALOG BASIS, Universität Stuttgart, Universität St. Gallen

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In the Nevada desert. A cloud of nanoparticles -- micro-robots – has escaped from the laboratory. This cloud is self-sustaining Self-reproducing. It is intelligent Learns from experience. For all practical purposes, it is alive. It has been programmed as a predator. It is evolving swiftly, becoming more deadly with each passing and preys on mankind and all living things He speculates about self-reproducing machines

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The Fear Factor

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What About Your Rights? Technical seminar

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Dr Eric Drexler , a leading proponent of Nanotechnology has expressed related concerns: ‘There are many people, including myself, who are quite queasy about the consequences of this technology for the future. We are talking about changing so many things that the risk of society handling it poorly through lack of preparation is large (sic)‘ Technical seminar

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