Amelia Earhart

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It is a presentation that traces the emergence of the legendary aviatrix and daredevil who vanished without a trace in 1937.

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Presentation Transcript

Slide 1:

Amelia Earhart This profile of the legendary aviatrix and daredevil who vanished without a trace in 1937 by D. Aditya , IX C, Kendriya Vidyalaya, East Hill, Calicut, Kerala, India

Slide 2:

Amelia Earhart Aviatrix 1897 - 1937 “Adventure is worthwhile in itself” —Amelia Earhart

Slide 3:

Amelia Earhart , nicknamed "Lady Lindy" because of her achievements comparable to those of Charles Lindbergh, is considered "the most celebrated of all women aviators." Her accomplishments in the field of aviation inspired others and helped pave the ways for those that followed.

Slide 4:

Amelia Earhart was a woman of many "firsts." In 1932, she became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. In 1935, she also became the first woman to fly across the Pacific. From her early years to her mysterious 1937 disappearance while attempting a flight around the world, readers will find Amelia Earhart's life a fascinating story. Kate Boehm Jerome: In: Who Was Amelia Earhart? ( ISBN: 0448428563)

Slide 5:

I admire Amelia Earhart because I feel that she set high standards for women to follow. She wasn't afraid to go against what was expected of women. She wasn't satisfied with being average. I admire her for striving to excel and for succeeding. Kerry Simmons from Gassaway, West Virginia Amelia Earhart

Slide 6:

Amelia Earhart was the epitome of courage. Courage is standing up for whatever you believe in. Courage is having a belief, not trying to figure out what will be politically expedient for you. Quoted by Rose Duncan http://roseduncan.blogspot.com/2010/02/taking-break-to-rant-with-bow-to-amelia.html

Slide 7:

“Her compelling spirit and life are inspirational. I need that kind of strength for the day to day challenges of life.” Quoted by Cynthia Pittman, Caribbean, Puerto Rico (http://oasiswritinglink.blogspot.com/2010/02/amelia-earharts-courage.html)

Slide 8:

America's famous aviatrix Amelia Mary Earhart was born on July 24, 1897 at her grandparents' home in Atchison, Kansas. Amelia Mary Earhart's family consisted of her father Edward, mother Amy, Amelia and her younger sister Muriel. Amelia was named after her two grandmothers, but she was called " Meelie " because when Muriel was young she couldn't say "Amelia". The nickname remained with her throughout her life. Source: http://www3.mpls.k12.mn.us/marcy/Difference/earhart/Amelia's%20childhood%20page.html

Slide 9:

"After midnight the moon set and I was alone with the stars. I have often said that the lure of flying is the lure of beauty, and I need no other flight to convince me that the reason flyers fly, whether they know it or not, is the aesthetic appeal of flying."

Slide 10:

Amelia (Millie) and her sister Muriel ( Pidge ) were to know privilege and wealth through their grandparents....attending private schools and enjoying many of the comforts of life. Amelia's mother came from a well-to-do family and when her parents married, Judge Otis, Amy's father gave them a fully furnished two-story home for a wedding present. Amelia was daring even when she was child. When she was seven years old she wanted to ride an elephant, but her mother said, "No", but allowed her to ride a Ferris wheel instead . After failing in his private practice, Edwin took an executive job in 1905 with the Rock Island Line Railroad in Des Moines, Iowa.

Slide 11:

Amelia was daring even when she was child. When she was seven years old she wanted to ride an elephant, but her mother said, "No", but allowed her to ride a Ferris wheel instead. When Amelia was eight, her father was offered a job in Des Moines, Iowa. The family rode the train during a terrible rain storm to make the move. Flooding caused the train to move very slowly. Amelia learned from this experience to not panic in tense situations. Amelia was 10 years old when she saw her first airplane at the Iowa State Fair... "It was a thing of rusty wire and wood and not at all interesting..."

Slide 12:

Edwin was promoted in 1909 and their living standards much improved. " This happy time ," Muriel was to later write, " was unfortunately a prelude to a period which saw the loss of our material prosperity and the beginning of the disintegration of the family..." ...Edwin had begun to drink. In 1914 Amy and the girls left Edwin after he was fired from The Rock Island RR, and went to live with friends in Chicago.

Slide 13:

The family's social and financial security had been eroded ...from occupying a leading position in society they had become the subject of local gossip and pity. Amy, having some income from a trust fund, provided for the girls and later sent them to private intermediate schools in preparation for college. After visiting her sister in 1917 at a college preparatory school in Canada, Amelia decided to train as a nurses aid in Toronto and served as a Voluntary Aid Detachment nurse at a military hospital until the Armistice in November 1918.

Slide 14:

"There for the first time I realized what the World War meant. Instead of new uniforms and brass bands, I saw only the result of four years' desperate struggle; men without arms and legs, men who were paralyzed and men who were blind..."

Slide 16:

Amelia had heard of a woman pilot who gave flying instructions and shortly afterwards began lessons with pioneer aviatrix Anita " Neta " Snook at Kinner Field near Long Beach. Amelia and Neta took to each other on sight, both having similar backgrounds. Neta had restored a "Canuck"...an old Canadian training plane. In July Amelia purchased a prototype of the Kinner airplane...naming it " The Canary ". She had several accidents during this period, but considering the unreliability of planes in the early days of aviation, some could be attributed to unreliable engines and slowness of the planes. Neta Snook had reservations about Amelia's skills as a pilot, a feeling that was later held by many of Amelia's contemporaries.

Slide 17:

By October 1922, Amelia began participating in record breaking attempts and set a women's altitude record of 14,000 feet...broken a few weeks later by Ruth Nichols. It was during this time her parents divorced. Amelia sold her plane, bought a car which she called the Yellow Peril , and drove her mother to Boston. In Boston she took a job teaching English to foreign students at a place called Denison house. "The fact that my roadster was a cheerful canary color may have caused some of the excitement. It had been modest enough in California, but was a little outspoken for Boston, I found."

Slide 18:

She also worked as a visiting nurse. She moved into Denison house to work with the children there. Her fiancé, Sam Chapman, objected. She finally broke the engagement because Sam was opposed to a woman working after marriage. Amelia was too independent for him. She met George Palmer Putnam (known as G.P.), her future husband, when she was preparing for a flight from America to England. She would be riding as a passenger on this trip; the first woman to cross the Atlantic by plane. The plane was called the Friendship .

Slide 19:

The leg of the trip from Newfoundland to Wales took 20 hours and 40 minutes. Later when she wrote a book about the trip, she titled it "20 Hours, 40 Minutes, Our Flight in the Friendship".

Slide 20:

G.P. proposed to Amelia six times before she said, " Yes ". They were married quietly, and she wired her sister " Over the broomstick with G.P. today. Break the news gently to Mother ." "Jumping over the broomstick" referred to a marriage custom celebrated by slaves in a former time. Her mother disapproved of the marriage because G.P. was twelve years her senior and a divorced man.

Slide 21:

In Autumn 1925, Amelia took a position at Denison House in Boston as a "novice" social worker and was later employed as a staff member. She joined the Boston Chapter of the National Aeronautic Association, and invested what little money she had in a company that would build an airport and market Kinner airplanes in Boston. During this time she took full advantage of the circumstances to promote flying...especially for women. She regularly became the subject of columns in newspapers. The Boston Globe called her " one of the best women pilots in the United States".

Slide 22:

On April 27, 1926 her life was to change forever...a phone call from Captain H.H. Railey asked.. "how would you like to be the first woman to fly across the Atlantic?"

Slide 23:

Timeline of Amelia Earhart’s Aviation Achievements October 22, 1922 - Set women's altitude record of 14,000 feet June 17-18, 1928 - First woman to fly across the Atlantic ; 20hrs 40min (Fokker F7, Friendship) August 1929 - Placed third in the First Women's Air Derby, aka the Powder Puff Derby; upgraded from her Avian to a Lockheed Vega

Slide 24:

June 25, 1930 - Set women's speed record for 100 kilometers with no load, and with a load of 500 kilograms. July 5, 1930 - Set speed record for of 181.18mph over a 3K course. April 8, 1931 - Set woman's autogiro altitude record with 18,415 feet (in a Pitcairn autogiro). Aviation Achievements….

Slide 25:

May 20-21, 1932 - First woman to fly solo across the Atlantic ; 14 hrs 56 min (it was also the 5th anniversary of Lindberg's Atlantic flight; Awarded National Geographic Society's gold medal from President Herbert Hoover; Congress awarded her the Distinguished Flying Cross Aviation Achievements.….

Slide 26:

August 24-25, 1932 - First woman to fly solo nonstop coast to coast ; set women's nonstop transcontinental speed record, flying 2,447.8 miles in 19hrs 5min. Fall 1932 - Elected president of the Ninety Nines, a new women's aviation club which she helped to form. July 7-8, 1933 - Broke her previous transcontinental speed record by making the same flight in 17hrs 7min January 11, 1935 - First person to solo the 2,408-mile distance across the Pacific between Hawaii and Oakland, California; also first flight where a civilian aircraft carried a two-way radio. She took off from Oahu's Wheeler Field; after an 18 hour flight, she landed at Oakland, with thousands of cheering fans to welcome her. May 8, 1935 - First person to fly solo nonstop from Mexico City to Newark; 14hrs 19min. In 1935, she dedicated the new Administration Building at Newark Airport. Aviation Achievements….

Slide 28:

In addition to her accomplishments, the nation was impressed by her sincerity, her simplicity of dress, and her abstinence from liquor. Once she allowed her name to be used in a cigarette ad even though she didn't smoke. The fact that her name was associated with cigarettes damaged her reputation somewhat. She and other women pilots formed an association called the Ninety-Nines because that was the final number of women pilots who joined the organization.

Slide 29:

November 1929 The first organization of woman pilots, the Ninety-Nines, is organized at Curtiss Field, Valley Stream. Amelia Earhart serves as the first president.

Slide 30:

For a period of time she wrote articles about aviation for Cosmopolitan magazine. She designed clothing suitable for travel or lounging and even designed some light weight luggage for air travel.

Slide 31:

In 1932, one year after her flight as a passenger across the Atlantic, she made a transatlantic flight alone from Harbour Grace, Newfoundland to Ireland. It was a hazardous flight due to the fact that her altimeter wasn't working. She didn't know her altitude; how high she was above the ocean, but she arrived safely and was awarded many honors in Europe.

Slide 32:

In 1934 she made a successful flight across the Pacific from Honolulu, Hawaii to Oakland, California. As a safety measure on this flight she carried two altimeters as well as three compasses.

Slide 33:

Dr. Elliot, President of Purdue University, asked her to join the faculty to guide their 800 women students in their careers. Twenty of the women expressed an interest in flying. Two members of the Purdue board of directors donated $40,000 for Amelia to purchase a Lockheed Electra, which she later used as she attempted an around-the-world flight.

Slide 34:

Her Last Flight

Slide 35:

In 1937 Amelia Earhart attempted an around-the-world flight. Flying a custom-built Lockheed Model 10E Electra , equipped with extra-large gas tanks, she would follow a 'close to the Equator' route, thus going one better than Wiley Post's northern, mid-latitude route. In her first effort, in March of 1937, she flew west, but a crash in Hawaii abruptly ended that trip.

Slide 36:

As for Earhart herself, she knew she was taking a big risk for high stakes: "Please know I am quite aware of the hazards.... I want to do it because I want to do it. Women must try to do things as men have tried. When they fail their failure must be but a challenge to others."

Slide 37:

Amelia Earhart's route during her flight around the world The World Flight of 1937

Slide 38:

Starting on May 21, 1937 from Oakland, California, in the recently repaired Lockheed Electra, she and her navigator, Fed Noonan , stayed over land as much as possible. After relatively short flights to Burbank, California, and Tucson, Arizona, they next touched down in New Orleans, and then Miami where the airplane was tuned-up for the long trip. The Electra Arrives in Miami

Slide 39:

From Miami, they flew through the Caribbean, to an enthusiastic welcome in San Juan, and then to Natal, Brazil, for the shortest possible hop over the Atlantic, although, at 1727 miles, it was the longest leg of the journey that they completed safely. They touched down in Senegal, West Africa; then eastward across Africa (via the dusty Sahal outposts of Gao , N'Djamena, and El Fasher ) to Khartoum and then Ethiopia. From Assab , Ethiopia, they were the first to make an Africa-to-India flight, touching down in Karachi (then part of India), a 1627 mile leg.

Slide 40:

From Calcutta, India they flew to Rangoon, Bangkok, and then Bandung, in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Monsoon weather prevented departure from Bandung for several days. Repairs were made on some of the long distance instruments which had given trouble previously. During this time Amelia had become ill with dysentery that lasted for several days. After a stop in Darwin, Australia, they continued eastward to Lae , New Guinea, arriving there on June 29. Her next destination was Howland Island, 2200 miles away, the longest over-water leg of the trip. To aid in radio communications, the U.S. Coat Guard cutter Itasca was stationed off Howland Island.

Slide 41:

From Lae , they took off for Howland Island, 2200 miles away in the Pacific. They never arrived. The Lockheed Electra took off from Lae at 0:00 Greenwich Mean Time. 8 hours later she called in to Lae for the last time. At 19:30, Itasca received the following: "KHAQQ calling Itasca. We must be on you but cannot see you...gas is running low..." An hour later, the last message came in: " We are in a line position of 157- 337. Will report on 6210 kilocycles. Wait, listen on 6210 kilocycles. We are running North and South. "

Slide 42:

Expected flight path to Howland Island

Slide 43:

Bearings on suspected Earhart radio signals converging in the Phoenix Islands

Slide 44:

Cutaway of the Amelia Earhart's Lockheed Electra.

Slide 45:

Perhaps the last photo ever taken of Earhart's Electra as it departed New Guinea

Slide 47:

The Itasca continued to transmit for another hour before concluding Earhart and Noonan must have ditched at sea. Search procedures began, and it was estimated the plane had gone down 35 to 100 miles (55 to 160 km) northwest of Howland Island. President Franklin Roosevelt authorized a search effort costing over $4 million and involving ten ships, 66 aircraft, and over 3,000 Navy personnel.

Slide 48:

George Putnam finally gave up hope in October and Amelia Earhart was officially declared dead on 5 January 1939 . Fred Noonan had been declared dead in June 1938. Earhart Light" on Howland Island in August 2008 The search covered 262,280 square miles (679,300 sq km) but was unable to find any trace of Earhart, Noonan, or their plane. The effort was discontinued two weeks later on 18 July.

Slide 49:

Disappearance Speculation A number of theories have emerged to explain what became of them, but these fall into three general categories. Crash-and- Sink Theory The first and most accepted theory is that Earhart ditched the Electra at sea in the vicinity of Howland Island. If so, the aircraft most likely sank within minutes. The aviators may have been able to escape, but it is believed they had left behind any rafts or other emergency gear to save weight . The only way to prove Earhart crashed at sea is to locate the wreckage of the Electra on the ocean floor, approximately 17,000 ft (5,200 m) deep. Several attempts at such a search have already been made. No evidence found.

Slide 50:

Gardner Castaway Theory Earhart and Noonan crash landed on or near another island in the Pacific and may have survived as castaways for some length of time. Each of these theories depends on assumptions about how much fuel remained aboard the Electra at the time of Earhart's last transmission and what she would do if unable to find Howland Island. A group called The International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery (TIGHAR) believes Earhart and Noonan most likely turned southeast along the 157/337 line of position since this choice gave the highest probability of finding land. TIGHAR believes flying in this direction brought Earhart near Gardner Island, now called Nikumaroro, about 350 nmi (650 km) from Howland and well within her remaining fuel supply.

Slide 51:

Map of Nikumaroro showing landmarks of interest

Slide 52:

Perhaps the most compelling evidence comes from telegrams sent by Gerald Gallagher to his colonial superiors. Gallagher said he and the settlers had found a partial human skeleton, a woman's shoe, a sextant box, a sextant eyepiece, and a bottle near an apparent campsite under a tree on the southeast corner of the island. In searching for additional evidence, TIGHAR has conducted several expeditions to Nikumaroro since 1989. The island has been uninhabited since 1963 but the expeditions have uncovered several artifacts that may date to the 1930s.

Slide 53:

Items found by TIGHAR include the sole and heel and other parts of a shoe that may match a type Earhart was known to wear (though the manufacturer says the sole belongs to a size 10 shoe and Earhart is believed to have worn a size 6), fragments of bottles and a cap, pieces of glass and metal that appear to have been used as crude tools, and aircraft debris. While TIGHAR has uncovered suggestive clues that Earhart and Noonan reached Nikumaroro , none of the items found can be conclusively tied to their ill-fated flight. The group continues to visit the island hoping to locate human remains for DNA testing or debris with a serial number that can be matched to the Lockheed Electra.

Slide 54:

New Britain Crash Theory This theory places the wreckage of the Electra far to the west about 1,900 nmi (3,500 km) from Howland. The hypothesis is based on reports from Australian soldiers who stumbled across unidentified aircraft wreckage on the island of New Britain during the closing months of World War II. The wreckage was in poor condition and so corroded it was considered too old to be a World War II plane. The cockpit area was also crushed making it unlikely anyone aboard survived the crash. The soldiers took an identification tag from the detached engine but otherwise left the wreck undisturbed as they continued their mission. Based on this evidence, the group Electra Search Project on New Britain believes the soldiers accidentally found the wreck of Amelia Earhart's plane and possibly her final resting place.

Slide 55:

Japanese Prisoner Theory Based on this collection of tales, researchers believe the Electra crash-landed at the Mili Atoll about 760 nmi (1,400 km) from Howland Island. Earhart and Noonan were later picked up by a Japanese fishing boat or naval vessel after waiting several days. An Imperial Navy survey ship called the Koshu was in the Marshalls a week after Earhart's disappearance and is said to have steamed to Mili to pick up the two flyers and their damaged aircraft. The pair were then taken to another island, probably Jaluit , where Noonan received medical treatment for injuries received in the crash. The two were moved again to Kwajalein and ultimately imprisoned at Saipan.

Slide 57:

Ran out of gas and crashed into the Pacific Captured by the Japanese and executed Captured by the Japanese and survived Hidden as part of an elaborate espionage operation by the U.S., Great Britain, or others Trapped in a time/space warp Became Tokyo Rose Returned to the U.S. and died in the 1990s The Nikumaroro Hypothesis - landed, survived for awhile, and died on Nikumaroro atoll in the Phoenix Islands. So…..The possible theories include:

Slide 59:

UPDATE Additional research into several of the disappearance theories has been underway. The most thorough exploration yet of the sea floor around Howland Island was conducted by the Waitt Institute for Discovery in 2009. The group conducted a detailed SONAR survey of 2,200 square miles (5,700 sq km) to the north and west of the island but could not locate any trace of Earhart's Electra. The team also produced an excellent archive of its research at the site Search for Amelia .

Slide 60:

The mystery of what happened to Amelia Earhart has been the subject of countless books, films, and even an episode of Star Trek: Voyager . A few works promoting the three primary theories about her fate include Amelia Earhart: The Mystery Solved by Elgen and Marie Long supporting the ditching at sea theory, Amelia Earhart's Shoes: Is the Mystery Solved? by Thomas King describing the Nikumaroro hypothesis, and Eyewitness: The Amelia Earhart Incident by Thomas Devine promoting the Japan connection. Another recommendation is Ric Gilespie's Finding Amelia: The True Story of the Earhart Disappearance that includes a DVD containing reports and other evidence cited by several of the theories .

Slide 61:

PHOTOS: View a short slide show of Earhart's final preparations before her fateful trip. Double Click on the links to know ‘ Where’s Amelia Earhart? ’ By NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rUR8r06EtVE and Amelia Earhart Theatrical trailer by FOX SEARCHLIGHT PICTURES http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ioZCEpRLpxo

Slide 62:

Amelia Earhart Free in the Skies ( ISBN: 0152024980) by Robert Burleigh Amelia Earhart: A Biography ( ISBN: 1560987251) by Doris L. Rich Amelia Earhart: Young Air Pioneer ( ISBN: 1882859022 by Jane Moore Howe, Harold Underdown (Ed. ) For further reading

Slide 63:

East to the Dawn: The Life of Amelia Earhart ( ISBN: 0306808870) by Susan Butler Who Was Amelia Earhart? (ISBN: 0448428563) by Kate Boehm Jerome

Slide 64:

Amelia Earhart's Radio Why She Disappeared By Paul Rafford, Jr. 8.5 x 10.5 Softcover 134 Pages - 120 Illustrations -- Based upon first person accounts -- 25 Interviews from the 1940s 65 years of research ISBN: 978-1891030-35-2 The Hunt for Amelia Earhart America's Greatest Search By Douglas Westfall 8.5 x 11 Softcover 272 Pages - 270 Illustrations -- Based upon first person accounts -- Unreleased Charts & Ephemera 100 Unpublished Photos from 1937 ISBN: 978-1891030-24-6

Slide 65:

Amelia Earhart Survived Her Return to America By Colonel Rollin C. Reineck 6 x 9 Hardcover 230 Pages - 50 Illustrations -- Based upon forensic evidence -- Photos of Earhart before and after ISBN: 978-1891030-34-5

Slide 66:

http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Explorers_Record_Setters_and_Daredevils/earhart/EX29.htm http://www.ellensplace.net/eae_intr.html http://www.lib.purdue.edu/spcol/aearhart/early.php http://gardenofpraise.com/ibdearha.htm http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96jul/earhart.html http://www.myhero.com/go/hero.asp?hero=a_earhart http://www.acepilots.com/earhart2.html http://curiosity.discovery.com/topic/historical-figures/amelia-earhart-pictures.htm http://www.janesoceania.com/oceania_amelia_earhart1/index.htm http://pearlsofrock.blogspot.com/2010/01/come-fly-with-me.html http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0299.shtml http://photoblog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/12/18/5674445-holiday-calendar-amelia-earharts-final-resting-place http://aerospacedreams.blogspot.com/2010/06/amelia-earhart-news.html http://www.ameliaearhart.com/ http://www.kansas.com/2011/01/29/1694595/amelia-earhart.html http://web.hcsps.sa.edu.au/projects/heroes/freya/amelia.htm http://www.forneymuseum.org/News_AmeliaEarhart.html http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0299.shtml Acknowledgements

Slide 67:

Besides, I sincerely thank The National Geographic, GOOGLE , Wikipedia ,YouTube & Fox Searchlight PICTURES. There are other sources as well, probably missing due to my oversight. Thanks a zillion to all of you… you have been wonderful. I know some of the pictures I have used could be copyrighted but I had no choice because I wanted to make the presentation very impressive. Besides, I was trying to make a presentation that showed one of America’s/ World’s most courageous, amazing and remarkable woman , who was not just an aviator but an example for others to follow. Therefore, I am sure, I would be excused.

Slide 68:

Thank you "The most effective way to do it, is to do it.“ - Amelia Earhart Aditya. D (U can get me on FACEBOOK).

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