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Premium member Presentation Transcript Motivation In Management: Motivation In Management -Rishabh Dev Zarrata.comPowerPoint Presentation: Zarrata.comWhat Is Motivation: What Is Motivation Zarrata.comWhat Is Motivation: What Is Motivation The factors that cause (direction), channel (effort) and sustain (persistence) the behavior of an individual. At its core, Motivation is potential energy which transforms into the kinetic energy of behavior. Behavior towards a particular direction and for a specific cause. Formally, it can be defined as a human psychological characteristic that contributes to an individual’s degree of commitment. Zarrata.comImportance Of Motivation In Management: Importance Of Motivation In Management Since, an individual’s behavior depends on the motivation, It can be used to increase the employee’s performance and commitment to the organization. If managers know what motivates the people working for them, they can assign jobs & rewards tailor-made for the individuals. Zarrata.comThe Game Plan: The Game Plan Zarrata.comTheories Of Motivation: Theories Of Motivation The most important thing is to identify what motivates a person-what makes them “tick”. Management Theories help us do just that. Each motivational theory describes what humans are, and what humans can become. Each theory, is thus, a particular view about people and what motivates them, from a particular perspective. Zarrata.comTheories Of Motivation: Theories Of Motivation Each Theory enables managers to fill in the following statement in one way or another: “A person is motivated when he or she ___” Zarrata.comTheories Of Motivation: Theories Of Motivation The theories can be categorized as: Need Theory Reinforcement Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Goal-Setting Theory Zarrata.comNeed Theory: Need Theory It is based on the principle that ‘people do what they do to get what they want’. Need-Based Theories Include: Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Alderfer’s ERG Theory Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Zarrata.comMaslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs: Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Zarrata.comMaslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs: Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs According to Maslow, individuals will be motivated to fulfill whichever need is the most important for them at a given time. In Maslow’s Hierarchy, if a lower need is satisfied, the next higher one becomes dominant. The higher the level, the greater is the motivation provided. Zarrata.comMaslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs: Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Zarrata.comArgument Against Maslow’s Theory: Argument Against Maslow’s Theory It is argues that human needs are not, and cannot be ordered. They are non-hierarchical, universal & invariant in nature. Zarrata.comAlderfer’s ERG Theory: Alderfer’s ERG Theory This theory agrees with Maslow that motivation can be gauged according to a hierarchy of needs. The difference is that ERG theory classifies needs into 3 categories & more importantly, Alderfer stressed that when higher needs are frustrated, the lower needs will return. Zarrata.comAlderfer’s ERG Theory: Alderfer’s ERG Theory Zarrata.comThe Two-Factor Theory: The Two-Factor Theory According to Herzberg’s Theory, job satisfaction & dissatisfaction arise from two separate sets of factors. The Dissatisfiers are called hygiene factors & the Satisfiers are called the motivating factors. Both factors are present in a person-the contribution of all the factors of each set give an estimated result of the degree of satisfaction. Zarrata.comThe Two-Factor Theory: The Two-Factor Theory Zarrata.comThe Two-Factor Theory: The Two-Factor Theory In the above investigations, the hygiene factors contributed 69% to dissatisfaction, and were characterized as low motivators. The motivators contributed 81% to job satisfaction and were characterized as high level factors where emphasis should be made. Zarrata.comReinforcement Theory: Reinforcement Theory Based on the “law of effect”-the idea that behavior with positive consequences (like rewards) tends to be repeated; and behavior with negative consequences (like punishment) does not. Zarrata.comReinforcement Theory: Reinforcement Theory The theory states the following four kinds of Reinforcements that may be used: Zarrata.comEquity Theory: Equity Theory According to this theory, people are motivated when they experience satisfaction with the rewards they receive; when the rewards are equitable to their efforts. Equity can be defined as a ratio between the individual’s job inputs to the job rewards. Zarrata.comEquity Theory: Equity Theory Zarrata.comExpectancy Theory: Expectancy Theory According to this theory, people choose how to behave from among alternative courses of behavior-based on their expectations of what there is to gain from each behavior. Behavior is determined by a combination of factors in the individual and factors in the environment. Zarrata.comExpectancy Theory: Expectancy Theory Three Major Components: Performance-Reward Expectancy – Individuals expect certain consequences of their behavior, which, in turn, affects their behavior. Effort-Performance Expectancy – People’s expectations of how difficult it will be to perform successfully affects their behavior. Valence – The motivating power of a particular behavior; varies from individual to individual. Zarrata.comGoal-Setting Theory: Goal-Setting Theory It focuses on the process of setting goals. According to this theory, the individuals are motivated when they behave in ways that move them to certain goals they can expect to attain. Goals should be accepted by the individual. As long as they are accepted – demanding goals lead to better performance than easy goals Zarrata.comGoal-Setting Theory: Goal-Setting Theory Zarrata.comIncentives & Rewards: Incentives & Rewards Incentive – Not all needs lead to action. It is the incentive’s function to activate a need. An incentive is a stimulus that activates the need as opposed to motive, which is the activated need. Thus, incentive is the means to motivation. Incentives can be Financial(in terms of money-wage, bonus, allowance, etc) or Non-Financial (status, job security, etc) Zarrata.comIncentives & Rewards: Incentives & Rewards Extrinsic Rewards – Rewards which are tangible; Rewards managers can provide; Rewards in the form of money, benefits, promotions, even flexible schedules, praise, feedback, a good boss and other inspirational people. Intrinsic Rewards – They are rewards that are internal to the individual; these are healthy relationships, meaningful work, competence, choice & progress. Zarrata.comAn Overview: An Overview Zarrata.comAn Overview: An Overview Zarrata.comAn Overview: An Overview Zarrata.comAn Overview: An Overview Zarrata.comPowerPoint Presentation: Thank You Zarrata.com You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.