DEVELOPMENT OF OCCLUSION

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DEVELOPMENT OF OCCLUSION :

DEVELOPMENT OF OCCLUSION Presented by RAZEEN KHAN BDS 2K7

INTRODUCTION :

INTRODUCTION Development of occlusion is a genetically and environmentally conditioned process which shows a great deal of individual variations. Term ‘ occluso ’ defined as relationship between all components of masticatory system in normal function, dysfunction, and parafunction .

VARIOUS STAGES OF OCCLUSION DEVELOPMENT ARE: :

VARIOUS STAGES OF OCCLUSION DEVELOPMENT ARE: Predentate jaw relationship. Deciduous dentition period. Mixed dentition period. Permanent dentition period .

PREDENTATE PERIOD ::

PREDENTATE PERIOD : Period soon after birth. Alveolar process at the time of birth is horse shoe shaped known as GUM PAD. Inter arch relationship is predicted by LATERAL SULCUS , a transverse groove between canine and 1 st molar. Maxillary gum pad is overjeted at mandibular and contact only in molar region known as INFANTILE OPEN BITE.

Gum pads…:

Gum pads… Develop in two distinct parts , a labio-buccal and a lingual portion.. It is divided by transverse grooves into ten segments .. Of these grooves those between the canines and first decicuous molars are called lateral sulci..

DECIDUOUS DENTITION PERIOD::

DECIDUOUS DENTITION PERIOD : -initiation of primary teeth occurs during first six weeks of intra-uterine life and first primary tooth crypts at age of 6 months.

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Characteristics features of deciduous dentition are : 1- both dental arch are half round in shape or ovoid. 2- Shallow cuspal interdigitation . 3- slight overjet . 4- deep over bite. 5- almost no curve of spee present. 6- vertical inclination of incisors. 7- Spaced dentition. 8- different maxillo -mandibular relations like flush,mesial and distal terminal planes.

SPACING DENTITION : :

SPACING DENTITION : Primate space Physiological spaces

PRIMATE SPACING ::

PRIMATE SPACING :

PHYSIOLOGICAL SPACING ::

PHYSIOLOGICAL SPACING :

NON SPACED DENTITION : :

NON SPACED DENTITION : Loss of space due to smaller jaw or larger teeth. It indicates crowding in developing permanent dentition.

TERMINAL PLANES : :

TERMINAL PLANES : Misio -distal relationship between distal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular second deciduous molar. This is of 3 types : Flush terminal plane (74%) Mesial step terminal plane (14%) Distal step terminal plane (10%)

FLUSH TERMINAL PLANE ::

FLUSH TERMINAL PLANE :

MESIAL STEP TERMINAL PLANE ::

MESIAL STEP TERMINAL PLANE :

DISTAL STEP TERMINAL PLANE::

DISTAL STEP TERMINAL PLANE:

ANTERIOR TEETH RELATIONSHIP : :

ANTERIOR TEETH RELATIONSHIP : Over bite Over jet Edge to edge bite Canine relationship Arch dimension -

CANINE RELATIONSHIP ::

CANINE RELATIONSHIP : Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

ARCH DIMENSION : :

ARCH DIMENSION : - Arch size - Arch length - Arch circumference - Arch width

Uses of the dental arch perimeter…:

Uses of the dental arch perimeter… Adjustment of the molar occlusion.. Alignment of the permanent incisors.. Space for the cuspids and premolars..

MIXED DENTITION PERIOD::

MIXED DENTITION PERIOD: Period during which both primary & permanent teeth are present in mouth together. It can be divided into: 1- Ist transitional period. Eme rgence of first permanent molar. Incisors transition. 2-Inter transitional period. 3-Second transitional period. Emergence of cuspids , bicuspids & second permanent molar. Establishment of occlusion.

Phases in mixed dentition period::

Phases in mixed dentition period: Eruption of the first molars.. Exchange of incisors.. Exchange of lateral teeth..

Eruption of the first permanent molars…:

Eruption of the first permanent molars… Vertical plane type: if dental spaces existed in the primary dental arch, the first molar will erupt into angle’s class 1 occlusion. If not they will erupt into a cusp-to-cusp relationship..

continued:..:

continued:.. Mesial step type: the first molar erupt directly into angle’s class 1 occlusion..

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Distal step type: the first molar erupts directly and definitively into angle’s class 2 occlusion..

Factors controlling the arrangement of the permanent incisors..:

Factors controlling the arrangement of the permanent incisors.. Interdental spaces in the primary incisor region: This allows the relatively large permanent incisors to be accommodated in the arch.. Increase in intercanine width..

Eruption of the incisors..:

Eruption of the incisors.. the total sum of mesiodistal width of the four permanent incisors is larger than that of the primary incisors by about 7 mm in the maxilla and by 5 mm in the mandible.. This is termed about as incisor liability..

Continued..:

Continued.. Increase in anterior length of the dental arch.. It also provide space for the large permanent incisors.. Change of tooth axis of incisors: interincisal angle between the maxillary and mandibular CI is 150 degrees in primary dentition where as it changes to about 123 degree in the permanent dentition..

1ST TRANSITIONAL PERIOD ::

1 ST TRANSITIONAL PERIOD : Characterized by emergence of Ist permanent molars & exchange of deciduous incisors with permanent incisors. 1- Emergence of first permanent molar. -Their position previously occupied within jaws. 2- Sagittal relation between maximum enamel. 3- Occlusal relationship is established by cone and funnel mechanism with upper palatal cusp (cone) sliding into lower occlusal fossa (funnel).

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If second deciduous molar is in flush terminal plane, then the erupting permanent molar will also b in same relation. For this to change into class-1 relation the molars have to move 2-3 mm in forward direction . This is accompanied by - Early mesial shift - Late mesial shift

EARLY MESIAL SHIFT:

EARLY MESIAL SHIFT

LATE MESIAL SHIFT:

LATE MESIAL SHIFT

INTERTRANSITIONAL PERIOD ::

INTERTRANSITIONAL PERIOD : In this period maxillary and mandibular arches consists of permanent molars that sandwiches deciduous canines and molars.

UGLY DUCKLING STAGE : (broad band phenomena) :

UGLY DUCKLING STAGE : (broad band phenomena) - Self correcting malocclusion . -Seen 9-11 yrs of age or during eruption of canine. -permanent canine erupt and displace root of lateral incisors mesially and transfer force to central incisors and displace the roots mesially .

Ugly duckling stage…:

Ugly duckling stage… The transitional malalignment during the exchange period of the upper incisors is called “the ugly duckling stage”.. This is corrected later when the canines erupt and the pressure The transitional malalignment during the exchange period of the upper incisors is called “the ugly duckling stage”.. This is corrected later when the canines erupt and the pressure is transferred from the roots to the crown of the incisors.. is transferred from the roots to the crown of the incisors..

BROAD BAND PHENOMENON: STAGE 1-:

BROAD BAND PHENOMENON: STAGE 1-

STAGE 2 -:

STAGE 2 -

STAGE 3 -:

STAGE 3 -

2nd TRANSITION PERIOD : :

2 nd TRANSITION PERIOD : Characterized by replacement of deciduous molars and canine by premolar and permanent cuspids .

LEE WAY SPACE OF NANCE (E SPACE) ::

LEE WAY SPACE OF NANCE (E SPACE) : Combined mesio – distal width of permanent canine and premolar is less than that of deciduous canine and molar.

PERMANENT DENTITION ::

PERMANENT DENTITION : Some changes that can be seen in permanent dentition are: - Horizontal overbite decreases. - Dental arches becomes shorter. - Vertical overbite decreases upto age of 18 yrs by 0.5mm. - Overjet decreases by 0.7mm between 12-20 yrs of age.

Overbite AND OVERJET…:

Overbite AND OVERJET… During the primary dentition, the overbite normally decreases a slight amount, and the overjet is reduced to zero.. From the early mixed dentition to the completion of the permanent occlusion the average overbite increases slightly and then decreases, but there is great variability..

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