Wechsler Intelligence Scale

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Presented By::

Presented By: Nazish Rafique Mewish Zaman

A brief history of intelligence:

A brief history of intelligence The concept of 'intelligence' is relatively new, unknown a century ago, though it comes from older Latin roots inter= between, within + legere =to bring together, gather, pick out, choose, catch up, catch with the eye, read; intellegere = to see into, perceive, understand Francis Galton revived the term in the late 19th century.

Defining intelligence::

Defining intelligence: Binet (1916) defined it as the capacity to judge well, to reason well, and to comprehend well. Terman (1916) defined it as the capacity to form concepts and grasp their significance. Pintner (1921) defined it as the ability of an individual to adapt well to new situations in life.

The History of IQ testing::

The History of IQ testing : First IQ tests developed by Alfred Binet Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon 30 items of increasing difficulty - 1905 Revision 1908 – age specific versions These were developed to identify children who needed ‘special’ education. Binet believed that IQ could be increased by education.

Stanford-Binet intelligence scale::

Stanford-Binet intelligence scale:

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Alfred Binet: Binet started out as a lawyer in 1878. Then he started attending the Sorbonne in France & began studying psychology. He published over 200 books, articles, and reviews in experimental, developmental, social, and differential psychology. Binet later collaborated with Theodore Simon in 1920.

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Probably the most radically changed version of the Stanford-Binet since its inception. Prior to the 1986 SBIV, the Stanford-Binet produced only one score. Different kinds of items were used for different age levels; more difficult items were used for higher age levels.

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In the 1986 SBIV, items with the same kind of content were placed together into 15 separate subtests; allowed for calculation of total IQ, as well as scores for things such as verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and short-term memory.

Timeline of Binnet Scale::

Timeline of Binnet Scale: April 1905: Development of Binet-Simon Test announced at a conference in Rome June 1905: Binet-Simon Intelligence Test introduced 1908 and 1911: New Versions of Binet-Simon Intelligence Test 1916: Stanford-Binet First Edition by Terman 1937: Second Edition by Terman and Merrill 1973: Third Edition by Merrill 1986: Fourth Edition by Thorndike, Hagen, and Sattler 2003: Fifth Edition by Roid

Cost::

Cost: (SB5-11) Complete Test Kit with ScoringPro Software Price: $1,287.00 Clinical and neuropsychological assessment Early childhood assessment Psychoeducational evaluations for special education placements Adult social security and workers’ compensation evaluations Providing information for interventions such as IFSPs, IEPs, career assessment, industrial selection, and adult neuropsychological treatment Forensic contexts Research on abilities and aptitudes (SB5-12) Complete SB5 Kit with Interpretive Manual Price: $1,147.00 The SB5 can be scored by hand or scored with the SB5 ScoringPro. ScoringPro is a Windows®-based software program that provides consistency in raw score conversion, an extended score report, a graphical report, and a brief, narrative summary report with guidelines and suggestions based on well-established principles of assessment. The report can be exported to a word-processing file for editing as necessary.

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(SB5-13) SB5 ScoringPro Software Price: $255.00 Minimum System Requirements for the SB5 ScoringPro Software Microsoft® Windows 98/NT®4.0/Me/2000/XP Pentium® 200 MHz processor 64 MB RAM (96 MB recommended) CD-ROM or DVD drive 100 MB free hard disk space Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.01 or higher (SB5-1 ) STANFORD-BINET Intelligence Scales Complete Kit for Ages 2yrs to 85yrs Price: $1,087.00 Complete Set Includes: SB5-2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7 and Manipulatives all in a Carrying Case. This is a fantastic and a Popular Intelligence Scale, This Test Requires User Qualifications Form /page 63.

Discription of test::

Discription of test: The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale has a rich history. It is a descendant of the Binet-Simon scale which was developed in 1905 and became the first intelligence test. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was developed in 1916 and was revised in 1937, 1960, and 1986. The present edition was published in 1986. The Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale is currently being revised and the Fifth Edition is expected to be available in the spring of 2003 .

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The test consists of 15 subtests, which are grouped into the four area scores. Not all subtests are administered to each age group; but six subtests are administered to all age levels. These subtests are: Vocabulary Comprehension Pattern Analysis Quantitative Bead Memory Memory for Sentences.

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The number of tests administered and general test difficulty is adjusted based on the test taker's age and performance on the sub-test that measures word knowledge.

Purpose::

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was originally developed to help place children in appropriate educational settings. It can help determine the level of intellectual and cognitive functioning in: Preschoolers Children Adolescents Adults Assist in the dignosis of a learning disability Purpose:

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It is used to provide educational planning and placement, neuropsychological assessment, and research. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is generally administered in a school or clinical setting.

Administration::

Administration: Administration of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale typically takes between 45 to 90 minutes, but can take as long as two hours, 30 minutes. The older the child and the more subtests administered, the longer the test generally takes to complete. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is comprised of four cognitive area scores which together determine the composite score and factor scores.

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These area scores include: Verbal Reasoning Abstract/Visual Reasoning Quantitative Reasoning Short-Term Memory.

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Suitable for age range of 2 to 85+ years of age. Range of possible scores runs from a low of 40 to a high of 160. Reliability coefficients are as follows: Full scale IQ - .98 Nonverbal & verbal - .95 to .96 Factor scores - .90 to .92 Test-retest reliabilities range from high .7’s to low .9’s depending on age & testing interval.

Scoring::

Scoring: The SB-5 can be hand-scored or scored with optional scoring software. The scaled scores for the ten subtest scores are the familiar profile scores used in other IQ measures with a mean of 10, and Standard Deviation of 3 (range 1-19). These subtest scores combine to form four types of composite scores: 5 factor indexes (Fluid, Knowledge, Quantitative, Visual-Spatial, and Working Memory), 2 domains (Verbal and Nonverbal), Brief IQ from 2 subtests, and Full Scale (each with scaled score means of 100, SD=15 (range 40-160)

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Two subtests (one verbal and one nonverbal) combine to form each of the 5 factor indexes. There are two domain scales: Nonverbal IQ (combines the five nonverbal subtests) and Verbal IQ (combines the five verbal subtests). Two initial subtests combine to form the Abbreviated Battery IQ.

Reliability::

Reliability: Methods used to estimate reliability included split-half method, test-retest reliability, and interscorer agreement. “Reliability for the IQ and Factor Index scores was computed using ‘the formula for a reliability of a sum of multiple tests’ (technical manual, p.63).”

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(Johnson & D’Amato, 2004) The Full Scale IQ average reliability coefficients was .98, Nonverbal IQ average reliability coefficients was .95, Verbal IQ average reliability coefficients was .96, and the Abbreviated Battery IQ average reliability coefficients was .91. The Factor Index scores had included Fluid Reasoning at .90, Knowledge at .92, Quantitative Reasoning at .92, Visual-Spatial Processing at .92, and Working Memory at .91. (Johnson & D’Amato, 2004)

IQ Categories::

IQ Categories: Measure IQ Range Category 145-160 Very gifted or highly advanced 130-144 Gifted or very advanced 120-129 Superior 110-119 High average 90-109 Average 80-89 Low average 70-79 Borderline impaired or delayed 55-69 Mildly impaired or delayed 40-54 Moderately impaired or delayed

Validity::

Validity: Construct validity was obtained from the analyses of age trends for each of the five factor scores, which included both growth and decline, intercorrelations of tests, factors, IQs, and evidence for general ability.

Wechsler Intelligence Scale Author name: David Wechsler:

Wechsler Intelligence Scale Author name: David Wechsler

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The Wechsler intelligence scales were developed by Dr. David Wechsler, a clinical psychologist with Bellevue Hospital. His initial test, the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale , was published in 1939 and was designed to measure intellectual performance by adults The original WAIS (Form I) was published in February 1955 by David Wechsler ,as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale. The fourth edition of the test (WAIS-IV) was released in 2008 by Pearson.

The structure of the WISC-IV:

The structure of the WISC-IV

Cost::

Cost: WISC-IV Advanced Clinical Interpretation Manual price: $54.95 WISC-IV Response Booklets Price: $77.00 WISC-IV Record Forms Price: $120.00

Description of test::

Description of test: The WISC-III is an intelligence test published in 1991. It is the third edition in a long tradition of Wechsler intelligence tests. WAIS,R: which covers the age span of 16 to 74 years. WISC-III: Intended for children ages 6 to 16 and 11 months. WPPSI,R: which covers the age of 3 years to 7 years. Composed of two scales: Verbal and Performance

Sample Items from the WAIS:

Sample Items from the WAIS

Sample Items from the WAIS, 2:

Sample Items from the WAIS, 2

Sample Items from the WAIS 3:

Sample Items from the WAIS 3

What is the WISC-III supposed to do?:

What is the WISC-III supposed to do? Assessment: Measure children’s cognitive abilities. Classification: Identify gifted children. Identify children with learning disabilities. Assist in planning and implementing effective. treatment programs for challenged individuals.

Test/Scale Development::

Test/Scale Development: Developed in reaction to problems with the 1937 Stanford-Binet. SB items had been selected for use with children, & weren’t really appropriate for adults. SB had lots of timed tests, which made it difficult for older adults. SB did not consider that intellectual performance can deteriorate as a person grew older.

Use of Test(Purpose):

Use of Test(Purpose) The Wechsler scales are not purported to measure one's quantity of intelligence, but instead measures one's intellectual performance. The WISC-IV yields measures of general intelligence and specific indices including verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory and processing speed

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Administer tests in order designated on record form. Start points are age-specific and are marked in record form with a black arrow. The basal consists of two correct items in a row. If the basal is not reached, reversal items are administered in reverse sequence until basal is reached. Full credit is awarded for all items below basal even if accidentally administered and missed.

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The ceiling consists of a specified number of incorrect items in a row. Award no credit for items beyond ceiling even if accidentally administered and answered correctly. Scripts are presented in examiner’s manual.

Scoring::

Scoring: Each subtest produces a raw score – i.e., a total number of points – and has a different maximum total – e.g., vocabulary has 33 items, scored 0, 1 or 2 for a maximum of 66 points Raw score for each subtest (total no. of points) is converted to a scaled score with a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3 There are separate norms for ages 16-17; 18-19; 20-24; 25-29; 30-34; 35-44; 45-54; 55-64; 65-69; 70-74; 75-79; 80-84; 85-89

Scaled score equivalents of raw scores: 20 to 24 year old norms:

Scaled score equivalents of raw scores: 20 to 24 year old norms

Validity of the WAIS::

Validity of the WAIS: WAISIII correlates highly (mid 90’s) with earlier versions of the WAIS Correlation with SBIV is .88 Correlates significantly with grades in high school, university IQ and occupational attainment are also significantly correlated

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Predictions deriving from theory are borne out; fluid intelligence supposedly declines more rapidly in old age than crystallized intelligence Supported by finding that verbal subtests show minimal decrement with age, while performance subtests drop markedly.

Reliability::

Reliability: Refers ti the accuracy,consistency and stability of test scores across situations. The difference between hypothetical true and the individuals obtainied test score is measurment error. A reliable test will have relatively small measurement error and cosistent measurement results within one administration and on different occasions.

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Internal Consistency: The reliability coefficients for WISC-IV composite scale range from 0.88 (Processing Speed) to 0.97 (Full Scale).

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Interscorer Reliability: All WISC-IV protocols were double-scored by two independent scores, and evidence of interscorer agreement was obtained using the normative sample. Because the scoring criteria for most of the subsets are simple and objective,interscorer agremment is very high, ranging from 0.98 to 0.99.

WAIS-R Testing kit::

WAIS-R Testing kit:

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