Chapter 1

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Chapter 1 :

Chapter 1 Effective Communication in Business by Syed Maqsood Ahmed 1 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

Business Communication:

Business Communication Transferring information from one part of the business to another that leads to some outcome, changed behaviour or changed practice Formal Communication – established and agreed procedures Informal Communication – channels not formally recognised – ‘the grapevine’ 2 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

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Importance & Benefits of Effective Communication Effective communication whether speaking or writing is highly valued skill. Number of surveys told us that executives having the ability to communicate are ranked first among the personal factors necessary for promotion. The importance of effective communication extends across all areas of business, including management, technical, clerical & social positions. 3 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

Ancient Heritage for Communication Principles:

Ancient Heritage for Communication Principles In ancient world, both the East & the West, depends heavily on oral communication. It was necessary to communicate well specially when dealing with matters in Government assemblies & the law courts. For Example, China. Egypt. 4 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

Lifeblood of Every Organization:

Lifeblood of Every Organization An organization is a group of people associated for business, political, professional or social purposes. Organization cannot function without open & effective communication. The group of people require to interact & react, that is to communicate. They exchange information, plans, order needed supplies, make decisions, rules and regulations, proposals, contracts and agreements. So communication is lifeblood to every organization. 5 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

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Internal Communication And External Communication 6 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

Internal Communication:

Internal Communication A vital means of getting the organizational goals is through effective communication. There are four types of internal communication flows within the organization. Downwards Upwards Horizontal Diagonal 7 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

1 Downward communication:

1 Downward communication 8 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

1 Downward communication:

Relatively easy to manage Ensure staff know what their job is Keep staff informed about changes Communicate orally, then follow up in writing It helps increase job satisfaction, safety, productivity, and profitability It helps to decrease absenteeism, losses, and grievances. 1 Downward communication 9 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

1 Downward communication:

1 Downward communication Staff information needs Job responsibilities What is my job? Performance feedback How am I doing? Individual needs Does anyone care? Work unit objectives, results How is my unit doing? Vision, mission, values Where are we headed? Empowerment How can I help? 10 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

1 Downward communication:

1 Downward communication Mechanisms Job descriptions Notices Training Instructions Memos, meetings, emails 11 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

2 Upward Communication:

2 Upward Communication 12 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

2 Upward Communication:

2 Upward Communication Hard to manage Boss must be willing to listen Especially to bad news Boss must take time to listen Staff must be willing to share Especially bad news 13 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

2 Upward Communication:

Mechanisms Short, written weekly notes summarizing activities and problems Boss must provide feedback Regular staff meetings to discuss activities Staff copy relevant emails to boss Visit staff’s workplaces Keep your door open 2 Upward Communication 14 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

3 Horizontal Communication:

3 Horizontal Communication 15 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

3 Horizontal Communication:

3 Horizontal Communication Necessary to ensure coordination, avoid “islands” or “information silos” Encourage/require staff to communicate among units Effective horizontal communication is also essential in order to solve problems, perform job duties, prepare for meetings and cooperation in important projects. 16 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

4 Diagonal Communication:

4 Diagonal Communication 17 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

4 Diagonal Communication:

Can be formal – eg. teams Can be informal Build cross-departmental teams Encourage friendliness and informality Encourage informal interaction 4 Diagonal Communication 18 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

The ideal: Internal communication web:

The ideal: Internal communication web 19 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

How to encourage internal communication:

How to encourage internal communication Make information sharing part of job description Define reporting and information sharing responsibilities But avoid over-rigid procedures if possible Hold regular staff meetings But keep meetings short and efficient Provide physical bulletin boards Communicate actively Be an information source 20 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

External Communication:

Effective communication to people outside the organization is called external communication & it helps to create a good reputation & have a +ve impact on its ultimate success. External Communication 21 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

External Communication:

To Whom Customers Vender / suppliers Government Distributors / wholesalers Methods: Marketing ways, Paper + electronic Sales Dep't Customer Services External Communication 22 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

Challenge of Communication in The Global Market :

Challenge of Communication in The Global Market The way you communicate within or outside the country affect’s everything you accomplish. Your ability to communicate effectively make a difference to your organization. Developing The Right Attitude: Preparing Adequately: Becoming Flexible: Developing the right attitude and preparing adequately are crucial to effective communication in the international market place. These qualities helps to be effective in dealing with the international business people & becoming flexible helps you to deal with the issues within your organization. Syed Maqsood Ahmed 23

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Components of Communication Context Sender-Encoder Message Medium Receiver-Decoder Feedback 24 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

Context :

Context Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context. Syed Maqsood Ahmed 25

Sender / Encoder :

Sender / Encoder Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. Syed Maqsood Ahmed 26

Message :

Message Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear. Syed Maqsood Ahmed 27

Medium :

Medium Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient. Syed Maqsood Ahmed 28

Recipient / Decoder :

Recipient / Decoder Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder. Syed Maqsood Ahmed 29

Feedback :

Feedback Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc. Syed Maqsood Ahmed 30

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Concepts & Problems of Communication & Nonverbal Communication How Appearance Communicates How Body Language Communicates How Silence, Time, & Space Communicates 31 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

Nonverbal Communication I:

Nonverbal Communication I Is it possible to communicate without words? Studies show that over half of your message is carried through nonverbal elements: Your appearance Your body language The tone and the pace of your voice. 32 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

Nonverbal Communication I:

Communication researcher Mehrabian found that only 7% of a message’s effect are carried by words ; listeners receive the other 93% through non -verbal means. ♦Birdwhistell suggested that spoken words account for not more than 30-35% of all our social interactions. ♦Over 65 percent of the social meaning of the messages we send to others are communicated non-verbally. Nonverbal Communication I 33 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

A. Body Language:

A. Body Language “The bodily gestures, postures, and facial expressions by which a person communicates nonverbally with others” POSTURE GESTURE FACIAL EXPRESSIONS GAZE / EYE CONTACT 34 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

A. Body Language:

A. Body Language 1.Facial expression(s) 2.Eyes 3.Lips 4.Arms 5.Hands 6.Fingers 35 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

A1.2. Facial Expression(s):

A1.2. Facial Expression(s) Forehead Wrinkles Anger Eyebrows Outer edges up Anger Nose Upward Contempt 36 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

A2. Eyes:

A2. Eyes Cantered Focused Gazing Up Thinking Gazing Down Shame Gaze on the Side Guilty Wandering Disinterested, Bored 37 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

A3. Lips:

A3. Lips Parted Relaxed, Happy Together Possibly Concerned Wide Open Very Happy / Very Angry 38 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

A4. Arms:

A4. Arms Arms Crossed Angry, Disapproving Open Honest, Accepting 39 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

A5. Hands:

A5. Hands On Top of the Head Amazement Scratching Head Puzzled , Confused Rubbing Eyes Tired Rubbing Chin folded Thinking, Timid, Shy 40 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

A6. Fingers:

A6. Fingers Fingers Interlocked Tense Pointing at you Angry OK Signal Fine V Sign Peace 41 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

A. Basic Types of Body Language postures :

A. Basic Types of Body Language postures 1.OPEN / CLOSED People with arms folded and legs crossed and bodies turned away are signaling that they are rejecting messages. People showing open hands, fully facing you and both feet planted on the ground are accepting them. 2.FORWARD/ BACK When people are leaning forward and pointing towards you they are actively accepting or rejecting the message. When they are leaning back, looking up at the ceiling, doodling on a pad, cleaning their glasses they are either passively absorbing or ignoring 42 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

Thank You:

Thank You 43 Syed Maqsood Ahmed

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