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Food Safety


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Objectives List several implications of foodborne illness Explain what biological, chemical, and physical hazards are List some microorganisms of greatest concern Identify key practices for preventing food hazards from contaminating food Provide overview of HACCP system



What’s Your Knowledge? (T or F):

What’s Your Knowledge? (T or F) Foodborne illnesses are mostly caused by physical hazards, such as fingernails, glass, etc. getting into food. Young children are more susceptible to foodborne illnesses than adults. Improperly cooled foods can lead to foodborne illnesses.

What’s Your Knowledge? (T or F):

What’s Your Knowledge? (T or F) Time and temperature controls are the best methods to prevent microorganisms from growing in food. The best way to prevent hazards from causing foodborne illness is to have good sanitation and personal hygiene programs.



Today’s Concerns:

Today’s Concerns Children: “At-Risk People” New microbes New research findings Use of fresh produce

Today’s Concerns:

Today’s Concerns 5. Food prepared away from home International marketing and travel Consolidation of food production/ processing Food industry employees Employee turnover rates


FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO FOODBORNE DISEASE 12 % Food from unsafe sources 63% Improper STORAGE temperature 28% Poor personal hygiene 23% Contaminated equipment 21% Inadequate cooking 20% Other things

Types of Food Contamination:

Types of Food Contamination Biological – bacteria, mold, fungus, parasites, viruses and other toxins Chemical – accidental contamination with chemicals throughout the product chain Physical – accidental contamination with objects due to employee carelessness

Common Causes of Foodborne Illnesses:

Common Causes of Foodborne Illnesses Holding food too long in “danger zone” (41 o F to 140 o F) Not heating or cooking to proper temperature Not cooling properly (to 70 o F or lower within 2 hours, and from 70 o F to 41 o F within 4 hours)

Common Causes of Foodborne Illnesses:

Common Causes of Foodborne Illnesses Not reheating properly (to at least 165 o F for 15 seconds within 2 hours) Poor personal hygiene Cross-contaminating food

Cross - Contamination:

Cross - Contamination The transfer of harmful substances or microorganisms to food by other food, equipment and/or utensils, and people Causes Improper food handling practices Poor employee personal hygiene Improper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment/utensils

Cross - Contamination:

Cross - Contamination People are main agents of cross-contamination So, it is important to: Follow practices to prevent cross-contamination Follow time/temp control to prevent the growth of microorganisms in food


Activity Homework Activity: List the common causes of food contamination What are some of the measures food service workers can use to prevent foodborne illness?

Food Safety Hazards:

Food Safety Hazards Harmful substances that can contaminate food 3 types of Hazards Biological Chemical Physical

Biological Hazards:

Biological Hazards Include bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi that can cause illness Are present in natural environment where food is grown Cause more foodborne illnesses than other hazards


Bacteria Living, single-celled, microscopic organisms Ex: Salmonellae and E.coli O157:H7 2 types of bacteria as biological hazards Pathogenic : cause infections Toxigenic : produce harmful toxins


Bacteria Can be transmitted by Water Wind Insects Plants Animals People


Bacteria Thrive in Scabs and wounds The mouth, nose, throat Intestines Foods from plants and animals that are Warm, moist, rich in protein, and neutral or low in acid


Bacteria Can survive on clothes, skin, and hair Some survive freezing, or high temperatures Can be prevented from causing foodborne illnesses by proper time/temperature controls


Viruses Small, simple, incomplete particles - Ex: Hepatitis A virus Transmitted by Water and food People and animals Utensils and equipment Food-contact areas

PowerPoint Presentation:

What are Foodborne Diseases? Pathogens that contaminate food and water; when ingested cause illness Botulism, Cholera, Campylobacteriosis, Cryptosporidiosis, Cyclosporiasis, E. coli O157:H7, Hemolytic uremic syndrome, Listeriosis, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Trichinosis, Typhoid fever, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Yersiniosis

PowerPoint Presentation:

Campylobacteriosis Infectious disease caused by the bacteria Campylobacter. Associated with handling raw poultry or eating raw or undercooked poultry meat. Chickens are the food source that carries the disease. Symptoms: diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain, and fever. Lasts 2 to 10 days Prevention: Cook all poultry thoroughly, Wash hands with soap, use separate cutting boards, carefully clean countertops, cutting boards, and utensils.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Escherichia coli O157:H7 One of the hundreds of strains of the bacterium E.coli. Produces a powerful toxin, which causes severe illness. Associated with eating meat that has not been cooked sufficiently to kill E.coli. Ground beef is the food source that carries the disease. Symptoms: severe bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps Lasts 5 to 10 days Prevention: Cook all ground beef thoroughly, wash hands, counters, and utensils, and wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Salmonellosis Salmonellosis is an infection with a bacteria called Salmonella. Associated with contaminated foods: beef, poultry, milk, eggs, and vegetables. Symptoms: diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. Lasts 4 to 7 days Prevention: cook poultry, ground beef, and eggs thoroughly, do not eat raw eggs or unpasteurized milk, wash hands (reptiles and birds) Important that restaurants, hospitals, and nursing homes use pasteurized egg as a prevention method.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Shigellosis Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella. Associated with eating contaminated food (vegetables) Contamination by flies Symptoms: diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps. Lasts 5 to 7 days Prevention: wash hands, eat foods that are cooked properly, dispose of diapers properly.

Hepatitis A viruses:

Hepatitis A viruses Cause inflammation of the liver Often transferred by an infected employee May be carried in cold cuts, sandwiches, fruits, vegetables, and milk products Controlled by sanitation and good personal hygiene


Listeria Causes listeriosis, a serious disease for pregnant women, newborns and adults with a weakened immune system; Sources: soil and water. It has been found in dairy products including soft cheeses as well as in raw and undercooked meat, in poultry and seafood, and in produce


Vibrio Causes gastroenteritis or a syndrome known as primary septicemia. People with liver diseases are especially at high risk; Sources: raw or undercooked seafood


Toxoplasmosis A parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, a very severe disease that can produce central nervous system disorders particularly mental retardation and visual impairment in children. Pregnant women and people with weakened immune systems are at higher risk; Sources: meat, primarily pork

Clostridium botulinum:

Clostridium botulinum This organism produces a toxin which causes botulism, a life-threatening illness that can prevent the breathing muscles from moving air in and out of the lungs. Sources: home-prepared foods and herbal oils; honey should not be fed to children less than 12 months old


Staphylococcus This bacterium produces a toxin that causes vomiting shortly after ingesting; Sources: cooked foods high in protein (e.g. cooked ham, salads, bakery products, dairy products)


Viruses May survive freezing and cooking Need living host cells Cannot Live by themselves Grow and multiply on food


Viruses To keep viruses from causing foodborne illnesses Prevent cross-contamination Practice proper personal hygiene Realize the importance of handwashing


Fungi A group of organisms that range from microscopic, single-celled to very large multicellular organisms Ex: molds, yeasts, and mushrooms

Fungi: Molds:

Fungi: Molds Grow as a tangled, fuzzy mass; can spread rapidly Grow on most foods at most storage temperatures Some, on cheeses, are a natural part of the food Molds can spoil food by discoloration and unpleasant smell and taste

Fungi: Molds:

Fungi: Molds Some produce toxins linked to cancer in animals Cause serious infections and allergies Discard moldy foods where mold is not a natural part of the food

Fungi: Yeasts:

Fungi: Yeasts Spoil food by consuming them Require sugar and moisture to survive Produce carbon dioxide and alcohol Cause pink discoloration or sliminess Cause food to bubble No evidence that yeasts cause foodborne illness Spoiled food should be discarded


Parasites Organisms that need a host to survive Hosts are people, animals, or plants Ex: Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis


Parasites Infections are caused by Undercooked meats, fish Cross-contamination Eliminate parasites from causing foodborne illnesses Cook foods to proper internal temperatures Prevent cross-contamination Use frozen foods

Important Illness-Causing Microorganisms:

Important Illness-Causing Microorganisms Important to determine: Potential for contamination Likely sources Preventive measures to take

Bacterial Growth:

Bacterial Growth A single bacterium at 10am today has a doubling time of 20 minutes By 8pm, there will be 1,000,000,000 Bacteria have not taken over the planet because growth is limited at about one billion per gram or ml due to: Using up of all nutrients End product poisoning Limit of space

Chemical Hazards:

Chemical Hazards Sanitizers and cleaners Detergents Polishes Caustics Cleaning and drying agents Pesticides Lubricants

Prevent Chemical Hazards:

Prevent Chemical Hazards Keep cleaners/sanitizers in original containers with clear labels Store cleaners/sanitizers separately from food Use proper amount of chemicals Wash hands when through with chemicals

Prevent Chemical Hazards:

Prevent Chemical Hazards Wash fresh produce with plain water, brush Monitor pest control operators Keep food covered during pesticide applications Clean and sanitize equipment that may have come into contact with pesticide Limit access to chemicals

Physical Hazards:

Physical Hazards Physical objects that contaminate food Glass Bone Plastic Personal effects Metal shavings

Prevent Physical Hazards :

Prevent Physical Hazards Inspect equipment Avoid temporary “make-shift” repairs Remove staples from food boxes Use razor blades in secure devices Inspect raw materials Wear proper attire Avoid loose jewelry, acrylic nails, polish Use proper hair restraints

Prevent Physical Hazards:

Prevent Physical Hazards Store food in approved containers and bags Use commercial scoops to scoop ice Use separate ice for storage and for beverages Store toothpicks and non-edibles away from prep area Cover glass bulbs in preparation area Regularly clean can openers Throw away broken or chipped tableware

Chemical Contaminants:

Chemical Contaminants Intentional Food Additives Use of materials which enhance the acceptability of the products and/or aid in the development of the product Unintentional Food Additives

Chemical Contaminants Con’t:

Chemical Contaminants Con’t Residues This includes both food processing component residues as well as PESTICIDES, ANTIBIOTIC OR HORMONE IMPLANT residues Natural Toxicants Product Tampering Nutritional Components

What is HACCP?:

What is HACCP? Was designed in the 1960s to create 100% risk-free food for U.S. astronauts. Is preventative rather than reactive. Is a common-sense approach to food safety. Stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.

Potentially Hazardous Foods:

Potentially Hazardous Foods Any food or food ingredient capable of supporting rapid growth of microorganisms. Raw or cooked foods of animal origin meats, poultry, dairy, eggs, fish, seafood Cooked foods of plant origin Vegetables such as potatoes and beans Starches such as rice and pasta Some other foods cut melons, garlic in oil, tofu

Foods Commonly Associated with Foodborne Illness :

Foods Commonly Associated with Foodborne Illness Foods of animal origin Fresh fruits Fresh vegetables

Be Food Safe:

Be Food Safe

The Division of Foods is Based on Complete Trips Through the Temperature Danger Zone:

The Division of Foods is Based on Complete Trips Through the Temperature Danger Zone No Cook Process 1 Same Day Process 2 Complex Process 3 41 o F 140 o F 0 1 1 2 3

Step 1: Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs):

Step 1: Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Definition Written instructions for the things you do on a regular basis to ensure that your customers receive safe food Requirement Must be in writing, adapted for your facility, included in your HACCP plan and followed by all staff Expectation Adapt the 20 provided by KSDE Examples Hand washing, use of thermometers, storage

Step 2: Categorize Menu Items:

Step 2: Categorize Menu Items Process 1 – Food Preparation with No Cook Step Process 2 – Food Preparation for Same Day Service Process 3 – Complex Food Preparation Other – Foods that are not potentially hazardous and that are not commonly associated with foodborne illnesses

Step 3: Identify Control Measures:

Step 3: Identify Control Measures Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) The things done on a regular basis to ensure that all food is kept safe Critical Control Points (CCPs) The specific points in the flow of food through the operation at which a hazard can be reduced, eliminated or prevented. Food may be consumed at this point so this is the last defense. It is the “kill” or “control” step. & Critical Limit Time and/or temperature that must be achieved or maintained to control a food safety hazard

Step 4: Establish Monitoring Procedures:

Step 4: Establish Monitoring Procedures Why should monitoring take place? To ensure that the written HACCP plan is being followed correctly and is working well How will monitoring be done? Observations, check sheets, signing off on logs Who will monitor? Supervisory or other designated employees How often will they monitor? As needed - continuously, daily, weekly, monthly

Step 5: Establish Corrective Actions:

Step 5: Establish Corrective Actions What is a corrective action? A planned step you take when a food does not meet a critical limit Key features of corrective actions Measurable, specific, based on facts, appropriate for normal working conditions Goal of corrective action Determine and eliminate the cause Bring the CCP within critical limits Prevent the deviation from reoccurring Ensure safety of the food served


Activity Discussion Questions Review Questions Case Study (Choose among next 11 slides)

Case Study 1:

Case Study 1 Barbara cuts up uncooked chicken on a cutting board and then rinses the knife and the cutting board in warm water. Then, she uses the same board to slice melons. What is wrong with what she did? What microorganisms could contaminate the food because of this practice?

Case Study 2:

Case Study 2 Your CNP served macaroni and cheese, salad, and fresh apples for lunch. Two children became sick. Their mothers claim that it was from the food they ate at lunch. The food service director says that could not be possible because there was no meat on the menu. Is this food service director correct? Explain.

Case Study 3:

Case Study 3 Jill, a new employee, is unloading some buns that have just arrived. The cover of one box is torn. It is not known where the tear occurred. What should she do with the box of buns?

Case Study 4:

Case Study 4 Tom is putting some ingredients in the refrigerator. He puts the lettuce salad for today’s lunch under a pan of some uncooked chicken. What is wrong with what he did? Why?

Case Study 5:

Case Study 5 Martha is cooking some hamburger patties for lunch. She cooks them until they are brown and the juices run clear. Then she puts them in a warmer until they are ready to be served. What is wrong with what she did?

Case Study 6:

Case Study 6 Bill is serving tuna noodle casserole for lunch. He needs another pan of it but he just started to reheat it. He needs to serve it in a hurry. He touches the side of the pan and it seems hot. He decides to serve it as is. What is wrong with what he did?

Case Study 7:

Case Study 7 Maya is serving macaroni and cheese. She is wearing gloves. Her eyes begin to water and tear so she wipes away a tear with the back of her hand. She continues serving the macaroni and cheese. What is wrong with what she did?

Case Study 8:

Case Study 8 Steak soup has been delivered to Riley Day Care from the central kitchen. The delivery truck was late and the child care worker needs to serve the food right away. The containers feel hot, so she does not check the temperature before serving. What is wrong with that?

Case Study 9:

Case Study 9 Chicken fajitas have been delivered to the Boy's and Girl’s Club from the central kitchen. They are supposed to arrive cold and the food service assistant is to reheat them. When he takes the chicken out of the transport boxes, the containers feel like they are at room temperature. He reheats the chicken for five minutes and then serves it. What is wrong with what he did?

Case Study 10:

Case Study 10 Frank has just finished cutting up chicken. He wipes that area he used with a clean cloth and then rinses the cloth thoroughly. Later he uses the same cloth to wipe out the salad bowl before the lettuce salad is put in it to be served for lunch. What is wrong with what he did?

Case Study 11:

Case Study 11 Anita has just finished cutting up melon. She wipes the area she used with a clean cloth and rinses the cloth thoroughly. She uses the same cloth to wipe out the bowl before the cut melon is put in it to be served for lunch. What is wrong with what she did?

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