Unit - I

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Unit – I Computer:

Unit – I Computer A Computer is an electronic device that takes information in the form of raw data, manipulates it with the help of instructions on how the data is to be processed and finally gives the desired output.

Characteristics of Computers :

Characteristics of Computers High Speed Accuracy Storage Easy to handle Diligence Logical Decision Reliability

Parts of the Computer:

Parts of the Computer A computer is made up of several different parts. The Computer parts can be mainly classified into : Hardware Software

Hardware Components:

Hardware Components The physical parts of a computer that we can touch, for example mouse, Keyboard, Central Processing Unit etc are called as Hardware . Input devices Output Devices Processing Devices Memory Devices

Input Devices:

Input Devices Input Devices accept data in a form that the computer can utilize. Also, the input devices send the data or instructions to the processing unit to be processed into useful information. Keyboard - Joystick Mouse - Web Camera Scanner - Digital Camera Microphone

Output Devices:

Output Devices Output devices make processed data available to the user. Output devices display information on the screen. Monitor Printer Speakers

Processing Devices:

Processing Devices The CPU or Central Processing unit is the brain of the computer. It controls and directs the operation of the input and output devices. The CPU, with the help of memory, executes instructions in the repetition of machine cycles. The control unit fetches an instruction and data associated with it from memory The Control unit decodes the instruction The arithmetic/logic unit executes the instruction The arithmetic / logic unit stores the result in memory.

Memory Devices:

Memory Devices Memory devices like RAM, Hard disc, Floppy Disc, CD-ROM holds temporary instructions and data to complete the task and also hold the data permanently for future retrieval. Memory Primary Memory Secondary Memory RAM ROM Hard Floppy CD Pen Disk Disk ROM Drive

Types Of Computers:

Types Of Computers Note Book Computers Super Computers Mainframes Micro Computers Personal Computers

Categories of Software:

Categories of Software Software System Software Application Software Operating Systems File Mgmt. Tools Compilers Assemblers Utilities Debuggers Image Processors Word Processors Data Bases Spreadsheet Games Communication Software

Programming Languages:

Programming Languages In order to communicate with computers one needs a specific set of instructions, codes or languages which can be understood by computers. These languages are precise and definite and the output and results provided by the computer must be understood by human beings to make meaning and to represent the real world. The important computer languages are Assembly Language Machine Level Language High level Languages.

Assembly Language:

Assembly Language Assembly Language is machine dependent. It is designed to replace each machine code with an understandable mnemonic and each address with a simple alphanumeric string. This language is also known as symbolic machine language.

Machine Level language:

Machine Level language Machine Language is also known as low level language. There is only one language understood by the computer without using a translation program. This language is called the machine language. This language is normally written as strings of binary zeros and ones.

High Level Languages:

High Level Languages These languages are basically symbolic languages with macro instructions. Translations involved her is not one to one translation but a one to many kind of translation. When the translation of a program is to be done, it is copied into the main memory of the computer and it is executed in the CPU.

Technology used in High Level Translation:

Technology used in High Level Translation Problem Algorithm High Level Translator Language Program Sequence of Machine Instruction

Advantages of High Level Languages:

Advantages of High Level Languages Lower Program preparation cost Better Documentation Easier to maintain Fewer Errors Easy to learn and use Machine Independent

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