Lesson and Unit Planning: Lesson and Unit Planning Lesson Plan: Lesson Plan Lesson plan provide a generous scope for the self activity of the pupil, directed, guided and stimulated by the teacher. Lessons must be rightly planned in advance. While planning a lesson, the teacher must remember the general and specific aims of the lesson, time alloted, instruments and other material to be used and the age, capacity, needs and interests, of the children to be taught. Lesson Planning Requirements : Lesson Planning Requirements It helps in recalling every step of curriculum unit It helps in planning the process of teaching on the basis of class control, motivation and individual differences. Even if the teacher regularly achieves the teaching objectives and processes in the form of complete objectives and processes. It develops the possibilities of adjustment in the classroom situations, which makes the teaching effective. Lesson Planning : Advantages : Lesson Planning : Advantages Psychological teaching Based on Previous knowledge Suitable Environment Means for developing Teaching skills Determination of Activities Preparation of material aids Limitation of subject matter Use of Theoretical knowledge in teaching Orderliness and development in thinking Economy of Energy and time Importance of Lesson Planning : Importance of Lesson Planning To create self confidence in the Teacher To prevent wastage To achieve definite goals and objectives Making Evaluation possible To make thoroughness and effectiveness Measures for a Lesson Plan: Measures for a Lesson Plan 1. Introduction to preparation : Preparation is an introduction to the lesson to prepare the child’s mind for the new lesson. In Preparation, nothing new is taught or imparted to students. A good introduction arouses the interest and stimulates the curiosity of the pupils for the new lesson. The aim of the lesson in hand will automatically come out if the teacher has effectively done the preparation. Introduction involves : 1. Announcement of the aim of the lesson in hand 2. Testing of the Previous knowledge of the pupils. A good preparation may take only three to ten minutes for a forty minutes lesson period. Slide 7: 2. Style of presenting the matters : After the announcement of the aim the teacher has to present the new subject matter to his pupils. This most important step involves a lot of mental activity on the part of the students. The subject matter should be presented in an orderly sequence after dividing it into two, three or even more “Sections” or “Units”. Sections or Units should be given briefly in separate paragraph in the notes of lesson. The method of teaching the same should also be indicated in the opposite column. The presentation step should be divided into two columns for the purpose of convenience and facility . Slide 8: The subject matter is placed on the left hand side and the method or means of imparting that subject matter is placed on the right hand side. The teacher should make use of proper questions, maps, graphs, pictures, models and other illustrative material besides demonstration, explanation and exposition etc. At the end of each section or unit, a few questions concerning that section only should be asked to test whether knowledge has been properly assimilated. This “Sectional Recapitulation” should be stated in the lesson notes at the end of each section. As the lesson proceeds Blackboard summary should be developed side by side. Slide 9: 3. Association or Comparison : The subject association and comparison is included in presentation. The new knowledge is to be compared, contrasted, correlated and associated with the old knowledge. Through comparison the pupils grow in knowledge. The Pupils must properly know things or facts compared. Only those comparisons should be made which are valuable in stimulating the pupils and making them think. Through this creative process something new is made or discovered by the pupils themselves. Slide 10: 4. Application : The question of application arises only in those cases where the pupils are required to fill in an outline map, draw a particular diagram or a timeline or prepare a chart of graph, representing symbolically what has been imparted verbally in the period. Asked to write a short note of an essay or answer of certain questions, writing a program concerning the lessons taught in that particular period. The pupils are applying the new knowledge learnt and fixed in the memory. Application is a means of insuring knowledge and understanding. It is essential that an immediate, simple application of the knowledge imparted should be made in the lesson itself. Slide 11: Recapitulation : It means asking the pupils to reproduce what they have learnt. Recapitulation at the end of the lesson, also serves the purpose of application. Recapitulation is looking back and surveying briefly the path that has been just covered or travelled. It connects all essential parts of the lesson in an orderly and systematic way in a few minutes. It is a valuable mental exercise, which makes the subject more efficient and gives increased mastery of the subject matter. As there is always scope for modification and improvement, as the situation demands the teacher should use his own direction according to the needs of the hour. Ideal Lesson Plan : Ideal Lesson Plan Objective based Appropriate Material Aids Simple of Language Categorization of Lesson Plan into Units Premised on Previous knowledge Use of Illustration Individual Guidance Correlation Determining Activities Use of Strategies, Tactics, Techniques and Teaching Aids. Unit Planning : Unit Planning A number of related lessons may be combined to complete one teaching unit. Each lesson is a part of the whole unit and leads to the developments of next lesson in the unit. A careful unit planning is the road to successful teaching. Lack of planning encourages tumbling and indecision with accompanying discipline problems. Criteria of a Good Unit: Criteria of a Good Unit It should consider the needs, capabilities and interests of the pupils. It should permit a variety of learning experiences like field trips, experiments, demonstration and projects etc. It should take into account the previous experiences and background of the pupils. It should provide for new experiences, which the students have not done before. The length of the unit should be such as to maintain the interest of the students till the last. Slide 15: The material of the unit should consist of familiar and related topics and not as remote and strange one. It should be flexible so as to allow the above average pupils to go beyond the limits of the unit. It should be related to the social and physical environments of the pupils. It should help anticipate and satisfy some of the future needs of the pupils. Steps involved in preparing a teaching unit.: Steps involved in preparing a teaching unit. Preparation or Motivation Knowing the previous experiences Presentation Organization of learning Summarization Review and Drill Evaluation: Evaluation This is required to know that students have achieved and what they have failed to achieve. Evaluation should be mainly self evaluation. While preparing a unit plan the following factors should be kept in mind. Objectives with specifications Content Analysis Learning Activities Testing Procedures.