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Premium member Presentation Transcript PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORY LOCATION: PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORY LOCATION BY AMIT VERMA(firstname.lastname@example.org) ALOK VISHWAKARMA(email@example.com) RAVI KESHARI(firstname.lastname@example.org) (M.PHARM) DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS PSIT KANPUR PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORY LOCATION SELECTION : PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORY LOCATION SELECTION OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES layout Describe the concepts of plant location and plant Identify the various factors to be considered for selection of plant location from state/area to the specific site Distinguish among the alternative patterns of plant layout Discuss the various factors influencing the choice of an initial layout and its subsequent modificationSlide 4: What is a plant location? Plant location refers to the choice of region and the selection of a particular site for setting up a business or factory. What is an ideal location? cost of the product is kept to minimum. large market share. the least risk and the maximum social gain. It is the place of maximum net advantage or which gives lowest unit cost of production and distribution. For achieving this objective, small-scale entrepreneur can make use of locational analysis for this purpose.LOCATIONAL ANALYSIS: LOCATIONAL ANALYSIS Demographic Analysis: It involves study of population in the area in terms of total population (in no.), age composition, per capita income, educational level, occupational structure etc. (b) Trade Area Analysis: It is an analysis of the geographic area that provides continued clientele to the firm. He would also see the feasibility of accessing the trade area from alternative sites. (c) Competitive Analysis: It helps to judge the nature, location, size and quality of competition in a given trade area. (d) Traffic analysis: To have a rough idea about the number of potential customers passing by the proposed site during the working hours of the shop, the traffic analysis aims at judging the alternative sites in terms of pedestrian and vehicular traffic passing a site. (e) Site economics: Alternative sites are evaluated in terms of establishment costs and operational costs under this. Costs of establishment is basically cost incurred for permanent physical facilities but operational costs are incurred for running business on day to day basis, they are also called as running costs. Two sites A and B are evaluated in terms of above mentioned two costs as follows:Slide 6: Costs Site A (Rs.) Site B (Rs.) Cost of establishments: Land and Buildings 3,30,000 2,10,000 Equipment 60,000 60,000 Transport facilities 20,000 20,000 Cost of operations: Materials, freight and carriage 34,000 34,000 Taxes and insurance 10,000 7,500 Labour 1,00,000 70,000 Water, power and fuel 10,000 8,000 Total 5,64,000 4,09,500 Comparative Costs of Alternative LocationsSELECTION CRITERIA: SELECTION CRITERIA a) Natural or climatic conditions. b) Availability and nearness to the sources of raw material. c) Transport costs-in obtaining raw material and also distribution or marketing finished products to the ultimate users. d) Access to market: small businesses in retail or wholesale or services should be located within the vicinity of densely populated areas. e) Availability of Infrastructural facilities such as developed industrial sheds or sites, link roads, nearness to railway stations, airports or sea ports, availability of electricity, water, public utilities, civil amenities and means of communication are important, especially for small scale businesses. f) Availability of skilled and non-skilled Labour and technically qualified and trained managers.SELECTION CRITERIA: SELECTION CRITERIA g) Banking and financial institutions are located nearby. h) Locations with links: to develop industrial areas or business centers result in savings and cost reductions in transport overheads, miscellaneous expenses. i) Strategic considerations of safety and security should be given due importance. j) Government influences: Both positive and negative incentives to motivate an entrepreneur to choose a particular location are made available. Positive includes cheap overhead facilities like electricity, banking, transport, tax relief, subsidies and liberalization. Negative incentives are in form of restrictions for setting up industries in urban areas for reasons of pollution control and decentralization of industries. k) Residence of small business entrepreneurs want to set up nearby their homelandsFeatures of Pharma City: Features of Pharma City Development of 1900 acres for Pharma City. The Pharma City is located close to 4 lane ADB supported National No.5 that connects Chennai with Kolkatta. The Pharma City is 20 Km from the Air Port and 20 Km from the Sea Port. The Pharma City has the benefit of South Asia’s largest all weather sea port with extensive varied cargo handling facilities. The proposed green field deep water sea port at Gangavaram and Special Economic Zone in 9200 acres add value to the Pharma City.Features of Pharma City: Features of Pharma City The Pharma City has plans that takes care of Industrial water requirements from the river Godavari through the Yeleru canal. This is being carried out in public private partnership mode by Visakhapatnam Industrial Water Supply Company Simhadri Power project with an installed capacity of 1000 MW is located close by. The Pharma City is being provided with a dedicated 220/132/33 KV Electrical Sub station.Features of Pharma City: Features of Pharma City Common Effluent Treatment Plant with marine out fall is being planned. Marine outfall facility will be constructed into Bay of Bengal at a distance of 10 to 12 Km after studies relating to Environmental aspectsSIGNIFICANCE: SIGNIFICANCE location of a plant is an important entrepreneurial decision because it influences the cost of production and distribution to a great extent. In some cases, you will find that location may contribute to even 10% of cost of manufacturing and marketing. Therefore an appropriate location is essential to the efficient and economical working of a plant. A firm may fail due to bad location or its growth and efficiency may be restricted.PHARMACEUTICAL FECTORY LAYOUT AND PLANING: PHARMACEUTICAL FECTORY LAYOUT AND PLANING MAL = Material Air Lock, PAL = Personnel Air Lock Group Session – modified layout DEFINITION : DEFINITION Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machinery, equipment, furniture etc. with in the factory building in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of material to the shipment of the finished product. According to Riggs, “the overall objective of plant layout is to design a physical arrangement that most economically meets the required output – quantity and quality.” According to J. L. Zundi, “Plant layout ideally involves allocation of space and arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized.An Ideal Plant Layout : An Ideal Plant Layout should provide the optimum relationship among output, floor area and manufacturing process. It facilitates the production process, Minimizes material handling, time and cost, and allows flexibility of operations, easy production flow, makes economic use of the building, promotes effective utilization of manpower, and provides for employee’s convenience, Safety ,comfort at work, maximum exposure to natural light and ventilation. It is also important because it affects the flow of material and processes, Labour efficiency, supervision and control, use of space and expansion possibilities etc.OBJECTIVES OF PLANT LAYOUT : OBJECTIVES OF PLANT LAYOUT Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space To ensure that work proceeds from one point to another point without any delay Provide enough production capacity. Reduce material handling costs Reduce hazards to personnel Utilise Labour efficiently Increase employee morale Reduce accidents Provide for volume and product flexibility Provide ease of supervision and control Provide for employee safety and health Allow ease of maintenance Allow high machine or equipment utilization Improve productivityTYPES OF LAYOUT : TYPES OF LAYOUT An entrepreneur must possess an expertise to lay down a proper layout for new or existing plants. It differs from plant to plant, from location to location and from industry to industry. But the basic principles governing plant layout are more or less same. Classification plant layout 1. Manufacturing units 2. Traders 3. Service EstablishmentsManufacturing units : Manufacturing units In case of manufacturing unit, plant layout may be of four types: Product or line layout Process or functional layout Fixed position or location layout Combined or group layoutManufacturing units: Manufacturing units (a) Product or line layout: Under this, machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the product. The materials move form one workstation to another sequentially without any backtracking or deviation. Under this, machines are grouped in one sequence. Therefore materials are fed into the first machine and finished goods travel automatically from machine to machine, the output of one machine becoming input of the next.Manufacturing units (a) Product or line layout: : Manufacturing units (a) Product or line layout: Product or line layout of CR Osmotic Tablets Obtain raw material Mix. A.P.I and Excipient Granulating Tablet Press Tablet Coater Laser Drilling and PackagingManufacturing units (a) Product or line layout:: Manufacturing units (a) Product or line layout: PRINCIPLES All the machine tools or other items of equipments must be placed at the point demanded by the sequence of operations There should no points where one line crossed another line. Materials may be fed where they are required for assembly but not necessarily at one point. All the operations including assembly, testing packing must be included in the lineManufacturing units (a) Product or line layout:: Manufacturing units (a) Product or line layout: Advantages Low cost of material handling, due to straight and short route and absence of backtracking Smooth and uninterrupted operations Continuous flow of work Lesser investment in inventory and work in progress Optimum use of floor space Shorter processing time or quicker output Less congestion of work in the process Simple and effective inspection of work and simplified production control Lower cost of manufacturing per unitManufacturing units (a) Product or line layout:: Manufacturing units (a) Product or line layout: Disadvantages High initial capital investment in special purpose machine Heavy overhead charges Breakdown of one machine will hamper the whole production process Lesser flexibility as specially laid out for particular product. Suitability: Product layout is useful under following conditions: Mass production of standardized products Simple and repetitive manufacturing process Operation time for different process is more or less equal Reasonably stable demand for the product Continuous supply of materialsManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layoutManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout PRINCIPLES The distance between departments should be as short as possible for avoiding long distance movement of materials The departments should be in sequence of operations The arrangement should be convenient for inspection and supervisionManufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout Advantages: Process layout provides the following benefits a) Lower initial capital investment in machines and equipments. There is high degree of machine utilization, as a machine is not blocked for a single product b) The overhead costs are relatively low c) Change in output design and volume can be more easily adapted to the output of variety of products d) Breakdown of one machine does not result in complete work stoppage e) Supervision can be more effective and specialized f) There is a greater flexibility of scope for expansion.Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout: Manufacturing units (b) Process or functional layout Disadvantages: Product layout suffers from following drawbacks a. Material handling costs are high due to backtracking b. More skilled Labour is required resulting in higher cost. c. Time gap or lag in production is higher d. Work in progress inventory is high needing greater storage space e. More frequent inspection is needed which results in costly supervision Suitability: Process layout is adopted when 1. Products are not standardized 2. Quantity produced is small 3. There are frequent changes in design and style of product 4. Job shop type of work is done 5. Machines are very expensive Thus, process layout or functional layout is suitable for job order production involving non-repetitive processes and customer specifications and non standardized products, e.g. tailoring, light and heavy engineering products, made to order furniture industries, jewelry.(c) Fixed Position or Location Layout: (c) Fixed Position or Location Layout In this type of layout, the major product being produced is fixed at one location. Equipment Labour and components are moved to that location. All facilities are brought and arranged around one work center. This type of layout is not relevant for small scale entrepreneur. The following figure shows a fixed position layout(c) Fixed Position or Location Layout: (c) Fixed Position or Location Layout Advantages a) It saves time and cost involved on the movement of work from one workstation to another. b) The layout is flexible as change in job design and operation sequence can be easily incorporated. c) It is more economical when several orders in different stages of progress are being executed simultaneously. d) Adjustments can be made to meet shortage of materials or absence of workers by changing the sequence of operations.(c) Fixed Position or Location Layout: (c) Fixed Position or Location Layout Disadvantages: Fixed position layout has the following drawbacks Production period being very long, capital investment is very heavy Very large space is required for storage of material and equipment near the product. As several operations are often carried out simultaneously, there is possibility of confusion and conflicts among different workgroups. Suitability: The fixed position layout is followed in following conditions Manufacture of bulky and heavy products such as locomotives, ships, boilers, generators, wagon building, aircraft manufacturing, etc. Construction of building, flyovers, dams. Hospital, the medicines, doctors and nurses are taken to the patient (product).(d) Combined layout: (d) Combined layout Certain manufacturing units may require all three processes namely intermittent process (job shops), the continuous process (mass production shops) and the representative process combined process [i.e. miscellaneous shops]. In most of industries, only a product layout or process layout or fixed location layout does not exist. Thus, in manufacturing concerns where several products are produced in repeated numbers with no likelihood of continuous production, combined layout is followed. Generally, a combination of the product and process layout or other combination are found, in practice, e.g. for industries involving the fabrication of parts and assembly, fabrication tends to employ the process layout, while the assembly areas often employ the product layout. In tablet, manufacturing plant, the machinery manufacturing tablet is arranged on the product line principle, but ancillary services such as Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) heating, the power house, the water treatment plant etc. are arranged on a functional basis.2. Traders: 2. Traders When two outlets carry almost same merchandise, customers usually buy in the one that is more appealing to them. Thus, customers are attracted and kept by good layout i.e. good lighting, attractive colors, good ventilation, air conditioning, modern design and arrangement and even music. All of these things mean customer convenience, customer appeal and greater business volume. The customer is always impressed by service, efficiency and quality. Hence, the layout is essential for handling merchandise, which is arranged as per the space available and the type and magnitude of goods to be sold keeping in mind the convenience of customers. There are three kinds of layouts in retail operations today. 1. Self service or modified self service layout 2. Full service layout 3. Special layouts3. Services centers and establishment: 3. Services centers and establishment Services establishments such as motels, hotels, restaurants, must give due attention to client convenience, quality of service, efficiency in delivering services and pleasing office ambience. In today’s environment, the clients look for ease in approaching different departments of a service organization and hence the layout should be designed in a fashion, which allows clients quick and convenient access to the facilities offered by a service establishment.FACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT: FACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT Factory building: The nature and size of the building determines the floor space available for layout. While designing the special requirements, e.g. air conditioning, dust control, humidity control etc. must be kept in mind. Nature of product: product layout is suitable for uniform products whereas process layout is more appropriate for custom-made products. Production process: In assembly line industries, product layout is better. In job order or intermittent manufacturing on the other hand, process layout is desirable. Type of machinery: General purpose machines are often arranged as per process layout while special purpose machines are arranged according to product layoutFACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT: FACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT Repairs and maintenance: machines should be so arranged that adequate space is available between them for movement of equipment and people required for repairing the machines. Human needs: Adequate arrangement should be made for cloakroom, washroom, lockers, drinking water, toilets and other employee facilities, proper provision should be made for disposal of effluents, if any. Plant environment: Heat, light, noise, ventilation and other aspects should be duly considered, e.g. paint shops and plating section should be located in another hall so that dangerous fumes can be removed through proper ventilation etc. Adequate safety arrangement should also be made. Thus, the layout should be conducive to health and safety of employees. It should ensure free and efficient flow of men and materials. Future expansion and diversification may also be considered while planning factory layout.DYNAMICS OF PLANT LAYOUT: DYNAMICS OF PLANT LAYOUT Revision in plant layout may become necessary on account of the following reasons: Increase in the output of the existing product Introduction of a new product and diversification Technological advancements in machinery, material, processes, product design, fuel etc. Deficiencies in the layout unnoticed by the layout engineer in the beginning.APPLICABILITY OF PLANT LAYOUT: APPLICABILITY OF PLANT LAYOUT Applicability of this layout is the manufacture of talcum powder. Here machinery is arranged vertically i.e. from top to bottom. Thus, material is poured into the first machine at the top and powder comes out at the bottom of the machinery located on the ground floor. Applicability of this layout is the manufacture of sterile product. Applicability of this layout is the manufacture of solid, liquid and semi solid dosage form. A plant layout applies besides the grouping of machinery, to an arrangement for other facilities as well. Such facilities include receiving and dispatching points, inspection facilities, employee facilities, storage etc.APPLICABILITY OF PLANT LAYOUT: APPLICABILITY OF PLANT LAYOUT Generally, the receiving and the dispatching departments should be at either end of the plant. The storeroom should be located close to the production, receiving and dispatching centers in order to minimize handling costs. The inspection should be right next to other dispatch department as inspections are done finally, before dispatch. The maintenance department consisting of lighting, safety devices, fire protection, collection and disposal of garbage, scrap etc. should be located in a place which is easily accessible to all the other departments in the plant. The other employee facilities like toilet facilities, drinking water facilities, first aid room, cafeteria etc. can be a little away from other departments but should be within easy reach of the employees. Hence, there are the other industries or plants to which plant layout is applicable.SUMMARY: SUMMARY observed that the entrepreneur has to make decisions regarding plant location, which refers to the selection of a particular site for setting up a business or factory. But before making such a choice, he has to go through the detailed locational analysis considering various factors, which influence his decision. It is a long-term strategic decision, which cannot be changed once taken. An optimum location can reduce the cost of production and distribution to a great extent. Thus great care and appropriate planning is required to select the most appropriate location. The efficiency of production depends on how well the various machines; production facilities and amenities are located in a plant. An ideal plant layout should provide the optimum relationship among the output, floor area and manufacturing process.SUMMARY: SUMMARY An efficient plant layout is one that aims at achieving various objectives like efficient utilization of available floor space, minimizes cost, allows flexibility of operation, provides for employees convenience, improves productivity etc. The entrepreneurs must possess the expertise to lay down a proper layout for new or existing plants. It differs from one plant to another. But basic principles to be followed are more or less same. From the point of view of plant layout, we can classify small business into three categories i.e. (a) manufacturing units (b) traders (c) service establishments. Designing of layout is different in all above three categories e.g. manufacturing unit may follow one of Product, Process, and fixed position or combined layout, as the case may be. Traders might go either for self service or full service or special layouts whereas service establishments such as motels, hotels, and restaurants must give due attention to customer convenience, quality of service, efficiency in delivering the service etc. While deciding for layout for factory or unit or store, a small entrepreneur has to consider the factors like the nature of the product, production process, size of factory building, human needs etc. Plant layout is applicable to all types of industries or plants. At the end, the layout should be conducive to health and safety of employees. It should ensure free and efficient flow of men and materials. Future expansion and diversification may also be considered while planning factory layout. 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